Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish physician and microbiologist. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the world’s first broadly effective antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin from the mould Penicillium rubens in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain. He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy.
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