#278

Most Influential Person

British theoretical physicist, cosmologist and author

Stephen Hawking was born in Oxford, England in 1942 and died in March of 2018. He attended University College, Oxford where he received a BA in physics. Within his first year as a PhD student at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Hawking’s speech became difficult to understand and he started to have difficulty walking. He was diagnosed with Lou Gehrig’s disease and predicted to only live another two years. Luckily his disease progressed much more slowly than anticipated. It’s a good thing, because he is widely considered one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century. Hawking was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009, and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge until his death in 2018.

Hawking was a polymathic physicist of sorts, known for his work in theoretical physics as well as cosmology, and he would become a best-selling author with the publication of his book about the universe, A Brief History of Time (first published in 1988). He collaborated with noted mathematical physicist Roger Penrose (also in this list—in fact, he’s next) to study theories about black holes, an area of physics known as “gravitational singularity theorems” and utilizing Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Hawking proved that black holes do emit radiation, a phenomenon appropriately titled “Hawking radiation.” He was the first physicist to combine the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics (basically, theories of the very large and the very small) to explain cosmology—a scientific explanation of the universe. He was also a proponent of the many worlds interpretation in cosmology, where due to quantum effects there are more than one actual universes (strange stuff).

As you might expect, Hawking was honored for his groundbreaking work in physics. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, the BBC named Hawking number 25 in its list of all-time greatest Britons.

According to Wikipedia, Stephen William Hawking was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who, at the time of his death, was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge. Between 1979 and 2009, he was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.

- The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (7934)
- Particle creation by black holes (6947)
- Black hole explosions? (3508)
- The four laws of black hole mechanics (2413)
- Action Integrals and Partition Functions in Quantum Gravity (2254)
- General Relativity; an Einstein Centenary Survey (2118)
- Cosmological Event Horizons, Thermodynamics, and Particle Creation (2101)
- Thermodynamics of black holes in anti-de Sitter space (1946)
- Wave Function of the Universe (1720)
- Breakdown of Predictability in Gravitational Collapse (1594)
- The Development of Irregularities in a Single Bubble Inflationary Universe (1263)
- The singularities of gravitational collapse and cosmology (1254)
- Particle Creation by Black Holes (1253)
- Zeta function regularization of path integrals in curved spacetime (986)
- Black Holes and Thermodynamics (817)
- Gravitationally collapsed objects of very low mass (810)
- Gravitational radiation from colliding black holes (772)
- Black holes in general relativity (762)
- Path Integral Derivation of Black Hole Radiance (712)
- Black Holes in the Early Universe (702)
- A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes (642)
- Gravitational Multi - Instantons (630)
- Supercooled Phase Transitions in the Very Early Universe (569)
- The Gravitational Hamiltonian, action, entropy and surface terms (533)
- Soft Hair on Black Holes. (528)
- The Quantum State of the Universe (486)
- Classification of Gravitational Instanton symmetries (426)
- Why is the Universe Isotropic (420)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Contents (411)
- Rotation and the AdS / CFT correspondence (404)
- The unpredictability of quantum gravity (394)
- Path Integrals and the Indefiniteness of the Gravitational Action (387)
- Information loss in black holes (363)
- Brane world black holes (357)
- The Cosmological Constant Is Probably Zero (340)
- GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION IN AN EXPANDING UNIVERSE. (313)
- Bubble collisions in the very early universe (298)
- Perturbations of an Expanding Universe (297)
- THE NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME (276)
- Superrotation charge and supertranslation hair on black holes (260)
- Positive mass theorems for black holes (256)
- Space-Time Foam (254)
- A new topology for curved space–time which incorporates the causal, differential, and conformal structures (247)
- Gamma rays from primordial black holes (242)
- On the Shoulders of Giants (242)
- The path-integral approach to quantum gravity (236)
- Three Hundred Years of Gravitation (230)
- Operator ordering and the flatness of the universe (226)
- Living with ghosts (221)
- Black holes in the Brans-Dicke (220)
- The occurrence of singularities in cosmology. ɪɪɪ. Causality and singularities (218)
- Charged and rotating AdS black holes and their CFT duals (214)
- Solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with many black holes (212)
- Book Review: A brief history of time: from the big bang to black holes. / Bantam, 1988. (210)
- The Rotation and Distortion of the Universe (207)
- The occurrence of singularities in cosmology (190)
- The Illustrated A Brief History of Time (188)
- Quantum coherence down the wormhole (186)
- NUT charge, anti-de Sitter space, and entropy (179)
- DeSitter entropy, quantum entanglement and ADS/CFT (172)
- Brane new world (169)
- Open inflation without false vacua (153)
- Classical universes of the no-boundary quantum state (146)
- Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes (144)
- Generalized spin structures in quantum gravity (144)
- Trace anomaly driven inflation (141)
- Erratum: ``Particle creation by black holes'' (141)
- Black holes from cosmic strings (139)
- On the Rotation of the Universe (137)
- (Anti)evaporation of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes (130)
- Gravitational entropy and global structure (127)
- A natural measure on the set of all universes (125)
- The Cosmic black body radiation and the existence of singularities in our universe (124)
- No-boundary measure of the universe. (123)
- Energy and angular momentum flow into a black hole (122)
- Quantum gravity and path integrals (122)
- The Universe in a Nutshell (121)
- How probable is inflation (111)
- Fluctuations in the Inflationary Universe (110)
- The Nature of Space and Time (110)
- Higher derivatives in quantum cosmology: (I). The isotropic case (109)
- Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (106)
- Black hole entropy and soft hair (105)
- The Information Paradox for Black Holes. (98)
- Symmetry Breaking by Instantons in Supergravity (96)
- The existence of cosmic time functions (96)
- Occurrence of singularities in open universes (94)
- Causally continuous spacetimes (93)
- The gravitational Hamiltonian in the presence of non-orthogonal boundaries (89)
- The Boundary Conditions of the Universe (87)
- EUCLIDEAN QUANTUM GRAVITY (85)
- Quantum gravitational bubbles (84)
- Singularities in the Universe (83)
- The boundary conditions for gauged supergravity (80)
- Is the end in sight for theoretical physics? : an inaugural lecture (75)
- The theory of everything : the origin and fate of the universe (73)
- Populating the landscape: A Top down approach (73)
- An introductory survey (72)
- THE GRAND DESIGN (69)
- The quantum mechanics of black holes. (69)
- Open inflation, the four form and the cosmological constant (68)
- On the shoulders of giants : the great works of physics and astronomy (68)
- Selection rules for topology change (68)
- Stephen Hawking: \'Transcendence looks at the implications of artificial intelligence - but are we taking AI seriously enough?\' (64)
- THEORY OF THE DETECTION OF SHORT BURSTS OF GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION. (59)
- The propagation of particles in spacetime foam (58)
- Gravitational waves in open de Sitter space (57)
- God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed History (56)
- Variational Network Quantization (55)
- Helium Production in an Anisotropic Big-Bang Cosmology (53)
- Non-trivial topologies in quantum gravity (52)
- Supersymmetric Bianchi models and the square root of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation (51)
- The Very early universe : proceedings of the Nuffield workshop, Cambridge, 21 June to 9 July, 1982 (51)
- Trace anomaly of dilaton coupled scalars in two-dimensions (51)
- The conservation of matter in general relativity (50)
- The Isotropy of the Universe (49)
- Baby universes and the non-renormalizability of gravity (49)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Differential geometry (48)
- Stable and generic properties in general relativity (48)
- Interacting quantum fields around a black hole (48)
- Limits on inflationary models of the universe (46)
- No-boundary measure in the regime of eternal inflation (46)
- The Grand Design: New Answers to the Ultimate Questions of Life (42)
- Black holes and baby universes (41)
- The occurrence of singularities in cosmology. II (41)
- A Briefer History of Time (41)
- G?odel and the End of Physics (39)
- Local observation in eternal inflation. (39)
- Quantum Probabilities for Inflation from Holography (39)
- Do wormholes fix the constants of nature (38)
- A smooth exit from eternal inflation? (37)
- Naked and thunderbolt singularities in black hole evaporation (37)
- Bulk charges in eleven dimensions (36)
- The no boundary condition and the arrow of time. (34)
- Accelerated Expansion from Negative $\Lambda$ (32)
- Hawking on the Big Bang and Black Holes (32)
- Models for chronology selection (31)
- Numerical calculations of minisuperspace cosmological models (31)
- Baby Universes II (30)
- Singularities and the geometry of spacetime (29)
- The measure of the universe (28)
- Volume Weighting in the No Boundary Proposal (27)
- The event horizon. (27)
- Cosmological event horizons, thermodynamics, and particle creation (25)
- The Dreams Stuff Is Made Of (25)
- Comment on `Quantum Creation of an Open Universe', by Andrei Linde (24)
- Loss of quantum coherence through scattering off virtual black holes (24)
- Zeta Function Regularization of Path Integrals in Curved Spacetime (24)
- Gravitational radiation from collapsing cosmic string loops (24)
- Particle creation by black holes (22)
- Who's afraid of (higher derivative) ghosts? (22)
- General relativity (22)
- The Density Matrix of the Universe (21)
- On the Hoyle-Narlikar theory of gravitation (21)
- Eye-based Human Computer Interaction Allowing Phoning, Reading E-Book/E-Comic/E-Learning, Internet Browsing, and TV Information Extraction (20)
- The conformal BMS group (20)
- Comments on cosmic censorship (19)
- Cosmology from the Top Down (19)
- Evolution of near extremal black holes (19)
- The Formation and evolution of cosmic strings : proceedings of a workshop supported by the SERC and held in Cambridge, 3-7 July, 1989 (19)
- A variational principle for black holes (18)
- The Edge of Spacetime (18)
- Superspace and supergravity : proceedings of the Nuffield workshop, Cambridge, June 16 - July 12, 1980 (17)
- Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time: A Reader's Companion (17)
- Lorentzian Condition in Quantum Gravity (16)
- Lorentzian condition in quantum gravity (16)
- The effective action for wormholes (16)
- Lectures on Quantum Cosmology (16)
- Primordial Black Holes: Pair Creation, Lorentzian Condition, and Evaporation (16)
- The Theory of Everything (15)
- The cosmological constant (15)
- Inflation, singular instantons and eleven-dimensional cosmology (15)
- The singularities of gravitational collapse and cosmology (15)
- The Anisotropy of the Universe at Large Times (14)
- Properties of expanding universes (14)
- The Future of Spacetime (14)
- Computer and Web Resources for People with Disabilities: A Guide to Exploring Today's Assistive Technology (12)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: The initial singularity in the universe (12)
- Sample-efficient Cross-Entropy Method for Real-time Planning (12)
- The (elusive) theory of everything. (11)
- On the revolutions of heavenly spheres : on the shoulders of giants (10)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Translation of an essay by P. S. Laplace (9)
- The no-boundary proposal and the arrow of time (9)
- Into the universe with Stephen Hawking (9)
- In situ measurement of part geometries in layer images from laser beam melting processes (9)
- Evidence for Black Holes in Binary Star Systems (9)
- Stability of AdS and phase transitions (8)
- THE ANALOGY BETWEEN BLACK‐HOLE MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS (7)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: The role of gravity (7)
- Gravitational radiation: the theoretical aspect (7)
- Numerical Quadrature for Probabilistic Policy Search (7)
- George's Secret Key to the Universe (6)
- Erratum: Lorentzian condition in quantum gravity [Phys. Rev. D 59, 103501 (1999)] (6)
- Black holes in inflation (6)
- The alpha parameters of wormholes (6)
- Book Review: The formation and evolution of cosmic strings / Cambridge U Press, 1991 (6)
- The Cosmological Constant and the Weak Anthropic Principle (6)
- Rotating charged dust as a source for cylindrically symmetric electrovacs (6)
- Robust calibration marker detection in powder bed images from laser beam melting processes (5)
- Evaporation of Primordial Black Holes (5)
- BLACK HOLES ARE WHITE HOT fn1 (5)
- Learning to Identify Physical Parameters from Video Using Differentiable Physics (5)
- Book-Review - Three Hundred Years of Gravitation (5)
- Vector fields in holographic cosmology (5)
- Pair creation and evolution of black holes in inflation. (4)
- Book-Review - the Very Early Universe (4)
- Singularities in collapsing stars and universes (4)
- The (elusive) theory of everything. (4)
- Acausal Propagation in Quantum Gravity (3)
- The Grand Design: Rancang Agung (3)
- BLACK HOLES AND UNPREDICTABILITY (3)
- The illustrated theory of everything : the origin and fate of the universe (3)
- Wormholes and Non-simply Connected Manifolds (3)
- Breakdown of predictability in gravitational collapse (3)
- The Essential Einstein: His Greatest Works (3)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: General Relativity (3)
- Using the Singularity Research Development Kit (3)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Space–time singularities (3)
- BLACK HOLES AND THE INFORMATION PARADOX (2)
- Black Holes (2)
- Schrödinger: The Schrödinger equation of the Universe (2)
- The Future of the Universe (2)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Preface (2)
- CHAOS THEORY AND POSTMODERN ORGANIZATION (2)
- Why is the apparent cosmological constant zero (2)
- Origin of structure in the Universe (2)
- Yang-Mills instantons and the S-matrix (2)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: The physical significance of curvature (2)
- The theory of the NHS (2)
- George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt (2)
- Singularities in Collapsing Stars and Expanding Universes (2)
- Inflation with Negative \Lambda (2)
- George and the Big Bang (2)
- Supersymmetry and its applications: Superstrings, anomalies and supergravity; Proceedings of the Workshop, Cambridge University, England, June 23-July 14, 1985 (2)
- Black Holes and Unpredictability (2)
- Eternal inflation without metaphysics (1)
- Evaporation of Cosmological Black Holes (1)
- The Loss of Quantum Coherence due to Virtual Black Holes (1)
- Automated and Feature-Based Problem Characterization and Algorithm Selection Through Machine Learning (1)
- Evaporation of Two-Dimensional Black Holes (1)
- Planning from Images with Deep Latent Gaussian Process Dynamics (1)
- The Quantum Mechanics of the Universe (1)
- The Grand Design. Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow (1)
- Book-Review - 300 Years of Gravitation (1)
- Physical Representation Learning and Parameter Identification from Video Using Differentiable Physics (1)
- Primordial Black Holes: Tunnelling vs. No Boundary Proposal (1)
- Black Holes and Binary Stars (1)
- Asia-Pacific Development Journal, June 2017 (1)
- Paul Dirac: Dirac Memorial Address (1)
- Should China build the Great Collider (1)
- Pair Creation and Evolution of Black Holes During Inflation (1)
- Hawking atheopathy: famous physicist goes beyond the evidence (1)
- The Future of space-time (1)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: The Cauchy problem in General Relativity (1)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: References (1)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Notation (1)
- Newton's Principia (1)
- BLACK HOLE THERMODYNAMICS TODAYaT (1)
- Dr Stephen Hawking's disability advice (1)
- STRING COSMOLOGICAL MODEL WITH BULK VISCOSITY IN GENERAL RELATIVITY STRING COSMOLOGICAL MODEL WITH BULK VISCOSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD INVESTIGATONS ON SOME BIANCHI TYPE – III STRING COSMOLOGICAL MODELS (0)
- George and the Blue Moon (0)
- VARIATION OF AMINO ACIDS IN SOME BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL SAMPLE USING FT-IR STUDY (0)
- The C lassicalU niverses ofthe N o-B oundary Q uantum State (0)
- 2 The Wave Function of the Universe (0)
- Trilling Outlines Challenges , Priorities for APS in a Time of Change (0)
- The Haiku and the Double Helix ‐ Fall 2004 (0)
- Book-Review - Superspace and Supergravity (0)
- Book-Review - General Relativity - an Einstein Centenary (0)
- Quantum Entanglem entand AdS / CFT (0)
- CHAPTER THREE. Quantum Black Holes (0)
- Supersymmetry and its applications : superstrings, anomalies and supergravity : proceedings of a Workshop supported by the SERC and the Ralph Smith and Nuffield Foundations, Cambridge, 23 June to 14 July, 1985 (0)
- Time (0)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Causal structure (0)
- Inflation Reputation Reparation (0)
- George and the Unbreakable Code (0)
- Use of Exemplar Surveys to Reveal Implicit Types of Intelligence (0)
- Stephen Hawking's 60 years in a nutshell (0)
- Stephen Hawking and Schrödinger's Cat (0)
- Book Review: 300 years of gravitation. / CUP, 1987. (0)
- 1 Formalism of the nonlinear Schrödinger equations (0)
- The Hawking Phenomenon: 1942-2018 (0)
- Why did the Universe Inflate (0)
- LARGE N COSMOLOGY (0)
- Lecture 5: Non-Local Games (0)
- Counterfeit Product Detection with Deep Learning (0)
- ホ-キングvs.ペンロ-ズ--時空の本質をめぐる論争 (0)
- Action integrals and partition functions in quantum gravity (0)
- Book-Review - a Brief History of Time - an Interactive Adventure (0)
- CHAPTER ONE. Classical Theory (0)
- Book-Review - General Relativity (0)
- BOOKS, 1987–1996 (0)
- Instrumented Fugl-Meyer to assess upper limb motor impairment and recovery after stroke : reliability and association with clinical scores (0)
- The definition and occurrence of singularities in general relativity (0)
- Quantum Aspects of Accretion onto Black Holes in the Early Universe (0)
- Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays 1st edition (0)
- The role of inflammation in the coupling of atherosclerosis and osteoporosis (0)
- Arrow of Time in Cosmology (0)
- The Renaissance of General Relativity and Cosmology: Evaporation of two dimensional black holes (0)
- Bot accounts Ensemble Classification on Twitter (0)
- It's a bouncing baby Bombe (0)
- BIBLICAL COSMOLOGICAL MODELS – MICROCOSMOS (0)
- The very early universe. Proceedings of the Nuffield Workshop, held at Cambridge, England, 21 June - 9 July, 1982. (0)
- CHAPTER SEVEN. The Debate (0)
- Explore the Context: Optimal Data Collection for Context-Conditional Dynamics Models (0)
- The quantum amplitude for the Universe (0)
- The Future Of Quantum Cosmology (0)
- The Future Won't Look Like the Present (0)
- Gambling with the Universe (0)
- On rotating charged dust in general relativity (0)
- Rebuild your childhood with ourLego brick competition (0)
- THE IMPACT OF BINARY STARS IN THE DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL MASS OF STELLAR SYSTEMS (0)
- The Beginning of the Universe (0)
- Rotation and the Ads/cft Correspondence Typeset Using Revt E X (0)
- Introduction Western Europe Western Offshoots Eastern Europe (0)
- The Development of Irregularities in a Single Bubble Inflationary Universe (0)
- Inflation , the Four Form and the Cosmological Constant (0)
- From Agile Delivery, to an Agile Organization (0)
- Particle Creation by Black Holes (0)
- The Nature of Space and Time Two relativists present their distinctive views on the universe , its evolution and the impact of quantum theory (0)
- Ju l 1 99 8 DAMTP-1998-85 Inflation , Singular Instantons and Eleven Dimensional Cosmology (0)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Gravitational collapse and black holes (0)
- Reading the Mind of God (0)
- Activation of π-systems in Lewis acid mediated homogenous catalysis (0)
- Speech synthesis 1 Speech synthesis (0)
- CHAPTER FIVE. Quantum Cosmology (0)
- Tales of wonder (0)
- 1 3 Se p 20 10 Eternal inflation without metaphysics (0)
- Gravitational radiation: the theoretical aspect (0)
- Kant’s philosophy-An overall evaluation of transcendental aesthetics: Index 4.1 Introduction: 4.1.1 Kant's contemporary significance: 4.1.2 Kant's works: 4.1.3 Kant's critique of Pure Reason: 4.2 Kant's problem and Copernican revolutions: 4.3 Kant's theory of space and time transcendental aesthetics (0)
- The Large Scale Structure of Space–Time: Spherically symmetric solutions and Birkhoff's theorem (0)
- Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich 1914–1987 (0)
- ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES AND TRANSISTOR APPLICATIONS OF MoS 2 / MX 2 / MoS 2 TRILAYER HETEROSTRUCTURES (0)
- On the influence of the protein kinases pCKII, STN7 and STN8 on chloroplast phosphorylation networks in Arabidopsis thaliana (0)
- A debate on open inflation (0)

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Stephen Hawking is most known for their academic work in the field of physics. They are also known for their academic work in the fields of mathematics, literature, and education.

Stephen Hawking has made the following academic contributions:

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