#250 Overall Influence

British theoretical physicist, cosmologist and author

Stephen Hawking was born in Oxford, England in 1942 and died in March of 2018. He attended University College, Oxford where he received a BA in physics. Within his first year as a PhD student at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Hawking’s speech became difficult to understand and he started to have difficulty walking. He was diagnosed with Lou Gehrig’s disease and predicted to only live another two years. Luckily his disease progressed much more slowly than anticipated. It’s a good thing, because he is widely considered one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century. Hawking was Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009, and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge until his death in 2018.

Hawking was a polymathic physicist of sorts, known for his work in theoretical physics as well as cosmology, and he would become a best-selling author with the publication of his book about the universe, A Brief History of Time (first published in 1988). He collaborated with noted mathematical physicist Roger Penrose (also in this list—in fact, he’s next) to study theories about black holes, an area of physics known as “gravitational singularity theorems” and utilizing Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Hawking proved that black holes do emit radiation, a phenomenon appropriately titled “Hawking radiation.” He was the first physicist to combine the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics (basically, theories of the very large and the very small) to explain cosmology—a scientific explanation of the universe. He was also a proponent of the many worlds interpretation in cosmology, where due to quantum effects there are more than one actual universes (strange stuff).

As you might expect, Hawking was honored for his groundbreaking work in physics. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, the BBC named Hawking number 25 in its list of all-time greatest Britons.

Stephen William Hawking was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009.

Source: Wikipedia- Particle creation by black holes
- The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time
- Black hole explosions?
- The four laws of black hole mechanics
- Cosmological event horizons, thermodynamics, and particle creation
- Action integrals and partition functions in quantum gravity
- Wave function of the Universe
- Thermodynamics of black holes in anti-de Sitter space
- The development of irregularities in a single bubble inflationary universe
- Breakdown of predictability in gravitational collapse
- Zeta function regularization of path integrals in curved spacetime
- Black holes in general relativity
- Black Holes in the Early Universe
- Black holes and thermodynamics
- Path-integral derivation of black-hole radiance
- Supercooled phase transitions in the very early universe
- Gravitational Radiation from Colliding Black Holes
- Particle creation by black holes
- The quantum state of the universe
- Chronology protection conjecture
- Gravitational multi-instantons
- Origin of structure in the Universe
- Path integrals and the indefiniteness of the gravitational action
- The gravitational Hamiltonian, action, entropy and surface terms
- Why is the Universe Isotropic?
- The unpredictability of quantum gravity
- Gravitational instantons
- Rotation and the AdS-CFT correspondence
- Classification of Gravitational Instanton symmetries
- The cosmological constant is probably zero
- Brane-world black holes
- Perturbations of an Expanding Universe
- Spacetime foam
- Bubble collisions in the very early universe
- Wormholes in spacetime
- Entropy, area, and black hole pairs
- Black holes in the Brans-Dicke
- Gravitational Radiation in an Expanding Universe
- Information loss in black holes
- Gamma rays from primordial black holes
- Quantum coherence down the wormhole
- Operator ordering and the flatness of the universe
- Solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with many black holes
- The Rotation and Distortion of the Universe
- Positive mass theorems for black holes
- Brane new world
- Living with ghosts
- Open inflation without false vacua
- NUT charge, anti–de Sitter space, and entropy
- A new topology for curved space–time which incorporates the causal, differential, and conformal structures
- Charged and rotating AdS black holes and their CFT duals
- Fluctuations in the inflationary universe
- Duality between electric and magnetic black holes
- Energy and angular momentum flow into a black hole
- Black holes from cosmic strings
- Higher derivatives in quantum cosmology
- Arrow of time in cosmology
- Trace anomaly driven inflation
- A natural measure on the set of all universes
- DeSitter entropy, quantum entanglement and ADS/CFT
- Generalized spin structures in quantum gravity
- Spectrum of wormholes
- How probable is inflation?
- Gravitational entropy and global structure
- Classical universes of the no-boundary quantum state
- No-Boundary Measure of the Universe
- Quantum gravitational bubbles
- Symmetry breaking by instantons in supergravity
- Quantum gravity and path integrals
- Evaporation of two-dimensional black holes
- The Cosmic Black-Body Radiation and the Existence of Singularities in Our Universe
- Euclidean Quantum Gravity
- Singularities in the Universe
- Causally continuous spacetimes
- The boundary conditions for gauged supergravity
- Occurrence of Singularities in Open Universes
- Open inflation, the four form and the cosmological constant
- The gravitational Hamiltonian in the presence of non-orthogonal boundaries
- Limits on inflationary models of the universe
- The propagation of particles in spacetime foam
- Virtual black holes
- Probability for primordial black holes
- Pair Production of Black Holes on Cosmic Strings
- Helium Production in an Anisotropic Big-Bang Cosmology
- Supersymmetric Bianchi models and the square root of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation
- Theory of the Detection of Short Bursts of Gravitational Radiation
- Trace anomaly of dilaton-coupled scalars in two dimensions
- The Nature of Space and Time
- Baby universes and the non-renormalizability of gravity
- Gravitational waves in open de Sitter space
- Do wormholes fix the constants of nature?
- Origin of time asymmetry
- Selection rules for topology change
- Numerical calculations of minisuperspace cosmological models
- Non-trivial topologies in quantum gravity
- Interacting quantum fields around a black hole
- The Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes
- Stable and generic properties in general relativity
- The conservation of matter in general relativity
- Populating the landscape: A top-down approach
- Naked and thunderbolt singularities in black hole evaporation
- Quantum coherence and closed timelike curves
- Kinks and topology change
- BABY UNIVERSES II
- No-boundary measure in the regime of eternal inflation
- The Density Matrix of the Universe
- Why does inflation start at the top of the hill?
- Quantum probabilities for inflation from holography
- Models for chronology selection
- Local Observation in Eternal Inflation
- A smooth exit from eternal inflation?
- Gravitational radiation from collapsing cosmic string loops
- The Large Scale Structure of Space‐Time
- Bulk charges in eleven dimensions
- BABY UNIVERSES
- Evolution of near-extremal black holes
- A variational principle for black holes
- Loss of quantum coherence through scattering off virtual black holes
- Inflation, singular instantons, and eleven dimensional cosmology
- Lorentzian condition in quantum gravity
- The effective action for wormholes
- The Nature of Space and Time
- Comments on cosmic censorship
- Wormholes in string theory
- Is the End in Sight for Theoretical Physics?
- Singularities and the geometry of spacetime
- Evidence for Black Holes in Binary Star Systems
- Hawking on the Big Bang and Black Holes
- Lectures on quantum cosmology
- Quantum coherence in two dimensions
- Erratum: Lorentzian condition in quantum gravity [Phys. Rev. D 59, 103501 (1999)]
- The (Elusive) Theory of Everything
- BLACK HOLES ARE WHITE HOT
- The Anisotropy of the Universe at Large Times
- Superscattering matrix for two-dimensional black holes
- EVAPORATION OF PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLES
- The alpha parameters of wormholes
- Stability of AdS and phase transitions
- THE ANALOGY BETWEEN BLACK-HOLE MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS
- Vector fields in holographic cosmology
- Yang-Mills instantons and the S-matrix
- Gravitational radiation: The theoretical aspect
- Action integrals and partition functions in quantum gravity
- The path-integral approach to quantum gravity
- The no-boundary proposal and the arrow of time
- Black holes in inflation
- The Schrödinger equation of the Universe
- Black Holes and Unpredictability
- Particle Creation by Black Holes
- Stephen Hawking
- Why is the apparent cosmological constant zero?
- Black Holes and Binary Stars
- The Measure of the Universe
- BLACK HOLES AND UNPREDICTABILITY
- Cosmological event horizons, thermodynamics, and particle creation
- Quantum cosmology
- Wave function of the Universe
- The theory of the NHS
- CHAPTER FIVE. Quantum Cosmology
- Open Inflation
- Why did the Universe Inflate?
- The Loss of Quantum Coherence due to Virtual Black Holes
- The Future Of Quantum Cosmology
- The Beginning of the Universe
- The definition and occurrence of singularities in general relativity
- Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich 1914–1987
- Rebuild your childhood with ourLego brick competition
- Dirac Memorial Address
- Cosmology from the top down
- The Anisotropy of the Universe at Large Times
- Quantum Aspects of Accretion onto Black Holes in the Early Universe
- General relativity
- The (Elusive) Theory of Everything
- Inflation Reputation Reparation
- A debate on open inflation
- Gravitational radiation: the theoretical aspect
- Complete unification
- Reading the Mind of God
- It's a bouncing baby Bombe
- The Future Won't Look Like the Present
- The Haiku and the Double Helix - Fall 2004
- The Beginning of the Universe
- The Nature of Space and Time
- INTRODUCTION
- The singularities of gravitational collapse and cosmology
- The Four Laws of Black Hole Mechanics
- Particle Creation by Black Holes
- Breakdown of predictability in gravitational collapse
- Evaporation of Two-Dimensional Black Holes
- THE DEVELOPMENT OF IRREGULARITIES IN A SINGLE BUBBLE INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE
- Zeta Function Regularization of Path Integrals in Curved Spacetime
- Wave function of the Universe
- Origin of structure in the Universe
- Arrow of time in cosmology
- THE NO-BOUNDARY PROPOSAL AND THE ARROW OF TIME
- THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT IS PROBABLY ZERO
- Wormholes in spacetime
- DO WORMHOLES FIX THE CONSTANTS OF NATURE?
- Selection Rules for Topology Change
- Chronology protection conjecture
- FRONT MATTER
- A Non Singular Universe
- BLACK HOLES AND THE INFORMATION PARADOX
- LARGE N COSMOLOGY
- Wormholes and Non-simply Connected Manifolds
- 15. The path-integral approach to quantum gravity
- PATH INTEGRALS AND THE INDEFINITENESS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL ACTION
- Zeta Function Regularization of Path Integrals in Curved Spacetime
- THE COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT IS PROBABLY ZERO
- Path-integral derivation of black-hole radiance
- Action integrals and partition functions in quantum gravity
- Cosmological event horizons, thermodynamics, and particle creation
- SUPERCOOLED PHASE TRANSITIONS IN THE VERY EARLY UNIVERSE
- THE QUANTUM STATE OF THE UNIVERSE
- Origin of structure in the Universe
- Wormholes in spacetime
- GRAVITATIONAL MULTI-INSTANTONS
- Classification of Gravitational Instanton Symmetries
- FRONT MATTER
- CHAPTER ONE. Classical Theory
- CHAPTER THREE. Quantum Black Holes
- CHAPTER SEVEN. The Debate
- A fronteira final
- Stephen Hawking and Schrödinger's Cat
- Obshchaya teoriya otnositel'nosti. 1. Vvodnyi obzor
- Should China Build the Great Collider?
- Dr Stephen Hawking's disability advice

California Institute of Technology

Private research university located in Pasadena, California

University of Cambridge

Collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

University of California, Santa Barbara

Public university near Goleta, California, United States and part of the University of California system

- George's Secret Key to the Universe
- George's Cosmic Treasure Hunt
- George and the Blue Moon
- George and the Big Bang
- Brief Answers to the Big Questions
- My Brief History

#13 World Rank

Physics

#75 World Rank

Education

#160 World Rank

Mathematics

#1054 World Rank

Literature

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