# Lee Smolin

American theoretical physicist

## Lee Smolin's AcademicInfluence.com Rankings

## Download Badge

Physics

## Lee Smolin's Degrees

- Bachelors Physics Hampshire College

## Why Is Lee Smolin Influential?

(Suggest an Edit or Addition)According to Wikipedia, Lee Smolin is an American theoretical physicist, a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo and a member of the graduate faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Toronto. Smolin's 2006 book The Trouble with Physics criticized string theory as a viable scientific theory. He has made contributions to quantum gravity theory, in particular the approach known as loop quantum gravity. He advocates that the two primary approaches to quantum gravity, loop quantum gravity and string theory, can be reconciled as different aspects of the same underlying theory. He also advocates an alternative view on space and time that he calls temporal naturalism. His research interests also include cosmology, elementary particle theory, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and theoretical biology.

## Lee Smolin's Published Works

### Published Works

- Discreteness of area and volume in quantum gravity [Nucl. Phys. B 442 (1995) 593] (1994) (1175)
- Lorentz invariance with an invariant energy scale. (2001) (908)
- Loop space representation of quantum general relativity (1988) (670)
- Generalized Lorentz invariance with an invariant energy scale (2002) (566)
- A theory of everything? (2005) (448)
- Gravity's Rainbow (2003) (423)
- Principle of relative locality (2011) (329)
- Linking topological quantum field theory and nonperturbative quantum gravity (1995) (251)
- The Life of the Cosmos (1997) (244)
- Nonperturbative quantum geometries (1988) (219)
- Quantum symmetry, the cosmological constant and Planck scale phenomenology (2003) (216)
- Towards a theory of spacetime structure at very short distances (1979) (195)
- The case for background independence (2005) (192)
- Time Reborn: From the Crisis in Physics to the Future of the Universe (2013) (190)
- Quantum gravity with a positive cosmological constant (2002) (185)
- How far are we from the quantum theory of gravity (2003) (184)
- An invitation to loop quantum gravity (2004) (171)
- Fundamental quantum optics experiments conceivable with satellites—reaching relativistic distances and velocities (2012) (162)
- String theories with deformed energy momentum relations, and a possible nontachyonic bosonic string (2004) (160)
- Covariant action for Ashtekar's form of canonical gravity (1988) (156)
- Quantization of unimodular gravity and the cosmological constant problems (2009) (155)
- 2+1 gravity and doubly special relativity (2003) (151)
- Prospects for constraining quantum gravity dispersion with near term observations (2009) (149)
- Causal evolution of spin networks (1997) (147)
- Did the Universe Evolve (1992) (145)
- 2+1 quantum gravity as a toy model for the 3+1 theory (1989) (131)
- Quantum gravity and the standard model (2006) (129)
- Quantum deformation of quantum gravity (1995) (122)
- Conservative solutions to the black hole information problem (2009) (117)
- Relative locality: a deepening of the relativity principle (2011) (117)
- Quantum geometry with intrinsic local causality (1997) (108)
- The Chern-Simons invariant as the natural time variable for classical and quantum cosmology (1994) (108)
- Scientific alternatives to the anthropic principle (2004) (99)
- A new characterization of half-flat solutions to Einstein's equation (1988) (98)
- Atoms of space and time. (2004) (96)
- The singular universe and the reality of time : a proposal in natural philosophy (2014) (90)
- The left-handed spin connection as a variable for canonical gravity (1987) (89)
- Quantum Graphity (2006) (88)
- Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity (2010) (87)
- Quantum theory from quantum gravity (2003) (80)
- M theory as a matrix extension of Chern–Simons theory (2000) (79)
- The geometry of quantum spin networks (1995) (75)
- Triply special relativity (2004) (74)
- A Holographic formulation of quantum general relativity (1998) (73)
- Falsifiable predictions from semiclassical quantum gravity (2005) (70)
- Did the Universe evolve? (1992) (70)
- Disordered locality in loop quantum gravity states (2007) (69)
- The strong and weak holographic principles (2000) (66)
- General relativity with a topological phase: An Action principle (2003) (65)
- The linearization of the Kodama state (2003) (64)
- Could quantum mechanics be an approximation to another theory (2006) (62)
- The universe as a process of unique events (2013) (61)
- Anomalous cosmic-microwave-background polarization and gravitational chirality. (2008) (60)
- The exceptional Jordan algebra and the matrix string (2001) (57)
- A fixed point for quantum gravity (1982) (56)
- Exactly solvable quantum cosmologies from two killing field reductions of general relativity (1989) (55)
- Einstein's Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum (2019) (55)
- Plebanski action extended to a unification of gravity and Yang-Mills theory (2007) (54)
- Relative locality and the soccer ball problem (2011) (53)
- A lattice approach to spinorial quantum gravity (1989) (52)
- The future of spin networks (1997) (51)
- A Real Ensemble Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (2011) (51)
- The status of cosmological natural selection (2006) (50)
- The classical limit and the form of the hamiltonian constraint in nonperturbative quantum gravity (1996) (50)
- Recent Developments in Nonperturbative Quantum Gravity (1991) (49)
- On the intrinsic entropy of the gravitational field (1985) (49)
- The cubic matrix model and a duality between strings and loops (2000) (49)
- On the nature of quantum fluctuations and their relation to gravitation and the principle of inertia (1986) (49)
- Invariants of links and critical points of the Chern-Simon path integrals (1989) (49)
- Supersymmetric Spin Networks and Quantum Supergravity (1999) (48)
- Quantum energetic causal sets (2013) (48)
- The present moment in quantum cosmology: challenges to the arguments for the elimination of time (2000) (48)
- Quantum gravity on a lattice (1979) (45)
- Matrix Models as Non-Local Hidden Variables Theories (2005) (45)
- Renormalization of general relativity on a background of spacetime foam (1986) (44)
- Gamma ray burst delay times probe the geometry of momentum space (2011) (44)
- Gravitational radiative corrections as the origin of spontaneous symmetry breaking (1980) (43)
- Cosmology as a problem in critical phenomena (1995) (41)
- Anomalous CMB polarization and gravitational chirality (2008) (41)
- Holography and the scale invariance of density fluctuations (2006) (40)
- The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe (2006) (40)
- Unification of gravity, gauge fields and Higgs bosons (2010) (40)
- MOND as a regime of quantum gravity (2017) (39)
- The G Newton to 0 limit of Euclidean quantum gravity (1992) (39)
- Unimodular loop quantum gravity and the problems of time (2010) (38)
- Quantum gravity and inflation (2003) (38)
- Gravitational origin of the weak interaction's chirality (2012) (38)
- Classical paradoxes of locality and their possible quantum resolutions in deformed special relativity (2010) (37)
- The fate of black hole singularities and the parameters of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology (1994) (37)
- OPERA NEUTRINOS AND DEFORMED SPECIAL RELATIVITY (2012) (37)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: The inclusive reality of time (2014) (37)
- Time, measurement and information loss in quantum cosmology (1993) (36)
- Holography in a quantum spacetime (1999) (35)
- Holographic formulation of quantum supergravity (2000) (35)
- Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity (2006) (34)
- Graded manifold theory as the geometry of supersymmetry (1979) (33)
- Beyond weird (2019) (32)
- Recent Developments in Non-Perturbative Quantum Gravity (1992) (32)
- Cosmology of minimal varying Lambda theories (2019) (31)
- Does string theory solve the puzzles of black hole evaporation? (1987) (31)
- The classical limit and the form of the hamiltonian constraint in non-perturbative quantum general relativity (2008) (31)
- Quantum fluctuations and inertia (1986) (31)
- Strings as perturbations of evolving spin networks (1998) (30)
- Eleven-dimensional supergravity as a constrained topological field theory (2000) (30)
- Symmetry and entropy of black hole horizons (2004) (29)
- Temporal naturalism (2013) (29)
- Nonperturbative dynamics for abstract (p,q) string networks (1997) (29)
- Propagation and interaction of chiral states in quantum gravity (2007) (28)
- Thermal instability for positive brane cosmological constant in the Randall-Sundrum cosmologies (2001) (27)
- The thermodynamics of gravitational radiation (1984) (27)
- General relativity as the equation of state of spin foam (2012) (26)
- Particle Identifications from Symmetries of Braided Ribbon Network Invariants (2008) (25)
- An Action for higher spin gauge theory in four dimensions (2011) (25)
- The Bekenstein bound, topological quantum field theory and pluralistic quantum cosmology (1995) (25)
- Extremal variety as the foundation of a cosmological quantum theory (1992) (25)
- A Perspective on the Landscape Problem (2012) (25)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: An agenda for science (2014) (25)
- The Bekenstein Bound, Topological Quantum Field Theory and Pluralistic Quantum Field Theory (1995) (25)
- Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Maximal Variety (2015) (23)
- The self–organization of space and time (2003) (23)
- A Possible Solution to the Problem of Time in Quantum Cosmology (1997) (23)
- A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization (2013) (22)
- Could deformed special relativity naturally arise from the semiclassical limit of quantum gravity (2008) (22)
- Interaction-Free Effects Between Distant Atoms (2016) (22)
- A New discretization of classical and quantum general relativity (1993) (22)
- Space-time foam as the universal regulator (1985) (22)
- Note on the Plebanski action with the cosmological constant and an Immirzi parameter (2009) (22)
- LOOP REPRESENTATION FOR QUANTUM GRAVITY IN (2+1)-DIMENSIONS (1989) (22)
- Spin foam models as energetic causal sets (2014) (22)
- Disordered locality as an explanation for the dark energy (2009) (21)
- On limitations of the extent of inertial frames in non-commutative relativistic spacetimes (2010) (21)
- A Universe that Does Not Know the Time (2018) (21)
- Combinatorial dynamics in quantum gravity (1998) (21)
- Dynamics of the cosmological and Newton’s constant (2015) (20)
- LOOP REPRESENTATION FOR LATTICE GAUGE THEORY (1990) (20)
- Time asymmetric extensions of general relativity (2015) (19)
- Time and symmetry in models of economic markets (2009) (19)
- Self duality and quantization (1992) (19)
- The Dynamics of Difference (2017) (19)
- Chern-Simons theory in 11 dimensions as a non-perturbative phase of M theory (1997) (18)
- Gauge fixing in causal dynamical triangulations (2004) (18)
- 92 03 07 9 v 1 3 0 M ar 1 99 2 Weaving a classical geometry with quantum threads (2018) (18)
- Zero-parameter extension of general relativity with a varying cosmological constant (2019) (17)
- Self-organized criticality in quantum gravity (2004) (17)
- The Maldacena conjecture and Rehren duality (2001) (17)
- The Quantum Cosmological Constant (2018) (17)
- Realism and causality. I. Pilot wave and retrocausal models as possible facilitators (2019) (17)
- Unification of the State with the Dynamical Law (2012) (16)
- Towards a background independent approach to M theory (1998) (16)
- A candidate for a background independent formulation of M theory (1999) (16)
- The unique universe (2009) (16)
- Covariant quantization of membrane dynamics (1997) (15)
- Cosmological natural selection as the explanation for the complexity of the universe (2004) (15)
- High-energy behavior and second class constraints in quantum gravity (1984) (15)
- Precedence and Freedom in Quantum Physics (2012) (14)
- The GNewton to 0 limit of Euclidean quantum gravity (1992) (14)
- The new universe around the next corner (1999) (14)
- A quantization of topological M theory (2005) (14)
- Combinatorial Dynamics and Time in Quantum Gravity (2000) (13)
- 2+1 quantum gravity as a toy model for the 3+1 theory (1989) (13)
- Fermions and Topology (1994) (13)
- Experimental signatures of quantum gravity (1995) (13)
- Quantum gravity and the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (1986) (12)
- Time, laws, and the future of cosmology (2014) (12)
- Four principles for quantum gravity (2016) (12)
- Nonperturbative quantum gravity via the loop representation (1989) (12)
- Reversing the irreversible: From limit cycles to emergent time symmetry (2017) (11)
- Why gravity codes the renormalization of conformal field theories (2013) (11)
- Matrix universality of gauge field and gravitational dynamics (2008) (11)
- BRST quantization of Matrix Chern-Simons Theory (2002) (11)
- What Are We Missing in Our Search for Quantum Gravity (2017) (11)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: Mathematics (2014) (11)
- Coevolution of membranes and channels: A possible step in the origin of life (1997) (11)
- Thermodynamics of quantum spacetime histories (2015) (10)
- Temporal Relationalism (2018) (10)
- Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity (2016) (10)
- Loop Quantum Gravity and planck Scale Phenomenology (2005) (10)
- Using neutron stars and primordial black holes to test theories of quantum gravity (1997) (9)
- The Autodidactic Universe (2021) (9)
- Holographic relations in loop quantum gravity (2016) (9)
- Stochastic mechanics, hidden variables, and gravity. (1986) (9)
- Phenomenological Quantum Gravity (2006) (9)
- Realism and causality. II. Retrocausality in energetic causal sets (2019) (9)
- Lessons from Einstein's 1915 discovery of general relativity (2015) (8)
- Biocosmology: Towards the birth of a new science (2022) (8)
- The quantum mechanics of the present (2021) (8)
- The black hole information paradox and relative locality (2011) (8)
- Science and Ultimate Reality: Quantum theories of gravity: results and prospects (2004) (7)
- A naturalist account of the limited, and hence reasonable, effectiveness of mathematics in physics (2015) (7)
- The weak anthropic principle and the landscape of string theory (2009) (7)
- A Cubic Matrix Action for the Standard Model and Beyond (2022) (6)
- Noisy soccer balls (2013) (6)
- Positive energy in quantum gravity (2014) (6)
- The ground state of quantum gravity with positive cosmological constant (2002) (6)
- Mixmaster quantum cosmology in terms of physical dynamics (1996) (6)
- Biocosmology: Biology from a cosmological perspective (2022) (6)
- Enhanced color gauge invariance and a new di-photon state at the LHC (2016) (6)
- Time, Structure and Evolution in Cosmology (2003) (5)
- ar X iv : h ep-t h / 92 02 02 2 v 1 7 F eb 1 99 2 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS in NONPERTURBATIVE QUANTUM GRAVITY (2008) (5)
- Cosmology in crisis (2014) (5)
- What can we learn from the study of non-perturbative quantum general relativity? (1992) (5)
- Matrix universality of gauge and gravitational dynamics (2008) (5)
- The Equivalence Principle and the Emergence of Flat Rotation Curves (2018) (5)
- Workshop on Quantum Gravity and New Directions (1988) (4)
- Physics, Time, and Qualia (2021) (4)
- String Theory and the Scientific Method (2014) (4)
- Quantum gravity faces reality (2006) (4)
- The TAP equation: evaluating combinatorial innovation (2022) (4)
- A geometry for non-abelian tensor gauge fields (1984) (3)
- Linking shape dynamics and loop quantum gravity (2014) (3)
- Mixed Reactions to ‘No New Einstein’ (2006) (3)
- Three Dimensional Strings as Collective Coordinates of Four Dimensional Non-Perturbative Quantum Gravity (1996) (3)
- Reply to ``Comment on `Relative locality and the soccer ball problem''' (2013) (3)
- Galactic disks as reaction-diffusion systems (1996) (3)
- Non-local beables (2015) (3)
- Natural and bionic neuronal membranes: possible sites for quantum biology (2020) (3)
- Never say always (2006) (2)
- M ay 2 00 5 Self-organized criticality in quantum gravity (2005) (2)
- It's time to rewrite time (2013) (2)
- A Real Ensemble Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (2012) (2)
- Superspace unmasked: The physical interpretation of supergravity theory (1981) (2)
- Fermion Doubling in Loop Quantum Gravity (2015) (2)
- A New Class of Renormalizable and Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories (1984) (2)
- Twistor relative locality (2013) (1)
- Subtle Technologies 03 (2003) (1)
- COMPOSITE HIGGS BOSONS FROM AN EXTENDED GAUGE SYMMETRY (1984) (1)
- The TAP equation: evaluating combinatorial innovation in Biocosmology (2022) (1)
- A quantum leap for cosmology (2001) (1)
- Emergence of the standard model from quantum gravity (2006) (1)
- Non-local Field Theory from Matrix Models (2022) (1)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: The selective realism of mathematics (2014) (1)
- A lattice approach to spinorial quantum gravity (1989) (1)
- General Relativity and Gravitation, 1989: New Hamiltonian variables (1990) (1)
- Quantum symmetry, the cosmological constant and Planck-scale phenomenology (2004) (1)
- A ug 1 99 9 Supersymmetric Spin Networks and Quantum Supergravity (2000) (1)
- Matrix models as hidden variables theories (2002) (1)
- THE MAIN POSTULATES AND RESULTS OF LOOP QUANTUM GRAVITY (2006) (1)
- Views, variety and celestial spheres (2022) (1)
- 92 02 07 9 v 1 2 4 Fe b 19 92 Self Duality and Quantization (1992) (1)
- Cosmological Natural Selection (2021) (1)
- “Hot-spotting” to improve vaccine allocation by harnessing digital contact tracing technology: An application of percolation theory (2021) (1)
- Quantum reference frames and triality (2020) (1)
- Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics (2015) (1)
- Cosmology: Space‐time turn around (2010) (0)
- A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization (2015) (0)
- Implications of temporal naturalism for the philosophy of mind (2014) (0)
- Views, variety and quantum mechanics (2021) (0)
- 03 10 22 4 v 3 2 8 O ct 2 00 3 The linearization of the Kodama state (2018) (0)
- Rolling Up Our Sleeves (2021) (0)
- 04 06 27 6 v 1 3 0 Ju n 20 04 Triply Special Relativity (0)
- Examining Time (2021) (0)
- The path integral formulation of energetic causal set models of the universe (2023) (0)
- Black holes in cosmological natural selection (2014) (0)
- N ov 2 00 4 Symmetry and entropy of black hole horizons (2009) (0)
- Matters of Gravity (2005) (0)
- The Dynamics of Difference (2018) (0)
- The science of the one universe in time (2014) (0)
- The context and consequences of the argument (2014) (0)
- Interaction-Free Effects Between Distant Atoms (2017) (0)
- Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics (2016) (0)
- Making A Difference (2021) (0)
- A pr 2 00 7 Disordered locality in loop quantum gravity states (2008) (0)
- Space and Particles at the Planck Scale by Tomasz Konopka (2007) (0)
- 2 2 Se p 19 98 Combinatorial dynamics in quantum gravity (1998) (0)
- 9 v 1 1 F eb 2 00 0 M theory as a matrix extension of Chern-Simons theory (2000) (0)
- The geometry of quantum spin networks (1996) (0)
- Effect of nociceptive stimulation of signal transmission from low-threshold cutaneous afferents in the somatosensory system (2005) (0)
- Covariant action for Ashtekar's form of canonical gravity (1988) (0)
- 10 38 2 v 1 [ gr-q c ] 2 4 M ay 2 01 9 The cosmology of minimal varying Lambda theories (2019) (0)
- On the nature of quantum fluctuations and their relation to gravitation and the principle of inertia (1986) (0)
- Gravity's rainbow (2004) (0)
- The singular existence of the universe (2014) (0)
- Embracing Nature's Imperfections (2010) (0)
- 27 6 v 1 30 J un 2 00 4 Triply Special Relativity (2004) (0)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: Approaches to solving the meta-law dilemma (2014) (0)
- Unification of gravitation with particle physics via metric-connection theories. (1986) (0)
- A pr 2 01 1 A real ensemble interpretation of quantum mechanics (2011) (0)
- Scientific Impact (2021) (0)
- LOOP QUANTUM GRAVITY: LEE SMOLIN [2 (2011) (0)
- F eb 1 99 4 CGPG-94 / 2-1 gr-qc / 9402018 Cosmological Histories for the New Variables (2021) (0)
- Physicists, don't go by the book (1999) (0)
- Unification of the State with the Dynamical Law (2014) (0)
- Justifying the Laws (2021) (0)
- A pr 2 01 1 Relative locality and the soccer ball problem (2021) (0)
- The Meta-law Dilemma (2021) (0)
- Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Maximal Variety (2016) (0)
- A Perspective on the Landscape Problem (2012) (0)
- ul 2 00 3 2 + 1 gravity and Doubly Special Relativity (2005) (0)
- NONPERTURBATIVE QUANTUM GRAVITY (2008) (0)
- The setting: the puzzles of contemporary cosmology (2014) (0)
- Gauge fixing in Causal Dynamical (2008) (0)
- The linearization of the Kodama state (2004) (0)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: The mutability of the laws of nature (2014) (0)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: Principles for a cosmological theory (2014) (0)
- Never say aways (2006) (0)
- Physics via Architecture (2021) (0)
- Hypotheses for a new cosmology (2014) (0)
- The nature and scope of this work (2014) (0)
- Today Time , laws , and the future of cosmology (0)
- Ju n 20 05 An invitation to Loop Quantum Gravity (2004) (0)

This paper list is powered by the following services:

## Other Resources About Lee Smolin

## What Schools Are Affiliated With Lee Smolin?

Lee Smolin is affiliated with the following schools:

## What Are Lee Smolin's Academic Contributions?

Lee Smolin is most known for their academic work in the field of physics. They are also known for their academic work in the fields of

Lee Smolin has made the following academic contributions: