#973

Most Influential Person

American cosmologist

Lee Smolin was born in New York City in 1955. Smolin is best known for his foundational contributions to both loop quantum gravity and deformed special relativity. He has contributed to cosmology through the proposal of cosmological natural selection, and has authored four books exploring some of his philosophical concerns in physics. After dropping out of high school, Smolin attended Hampshire College and then Harvard University, where he earned a PhD in theoretical physics in 1979. Smolin is currently faculty at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, and an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo. In addition, he is a Philosophy professor at the University of Toronto.

Smolin is known for his criticism of string theory as a viable theory of fundamental physics, in particular with the publication of his 2006 book The Trouble with Physics. Smolin is a bit of a polymath, too, as his research interests vary from particle physics to cosmology, quantum mechanics, and theoretical biology. His theory of quantum gravity, known as loop quantum gravity, has gained adherents for its attempted fusion of quantum mechanics and general relativity, an approach in contradistinction to string theory.

As a philosopher of physics, Smolin has put forth a number of positions, notably that quantum mechanics is not a “complete” theory (because of quantum indeterminacy), and that there is one (and only one) universe, opposing popular accounts of many universes or “multiverses.” Smolin also has formulated fundamental notions of the nature of time and mathematics.

Lee Smolin, a prolific thinker and writer, has been recognized with numerous awards, including the Majorana Prize in 2007, and the Klopsteg Memorial Award in 2009. In 2013, Smolin received the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal. He has been dubbed the “new Einstein” by the media for his important and deep work in fundamental physics.

**Featured in Top Influential Physicists Today**

According to Wikipedia, Lee Smolin is an American theoretical physicist, a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo and a member of the graduate faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Toronto. Smolin's 2006 book The Trouble with Physics criticized string theory as a viable scientific theory. He has made contributions to quantum gravity theory, in particular the approach known as loop quantum gravity. He advocates that the two primary approaches to quantum gravity, loop quantum gravity and string theory, can be reconciled as different aspects of the same underlying theory. His research interests also include cosmology, elementary particle theory, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and theoretical biology.

- Discreteness of area and volume in quantum gravity [Nucl. Phys. B 442 (1995) 593] (1994) (1114)
- Lorentz invariance with an invariant energy scale. (2001) (873)
- Loop space representation of quantum general relativity (1988) (647)
- Generalized Lorentz invariance with an invariant energy scale (2002) (543)
- A theory of everything? (2005) (381)
- Gravity's Rainbow (2003) (367)
- Principle of relative locality (2011) (296)
- The Life of the Cosmos (1997) (253)
- Linking topological quantum field theory and nonperturbative quantum gravity (1995) (232)
- Nonperturbative quantum geometries (1988) (214)
- Quantum symmetry, the cosmological constant and Planck scale phenomenology (2003) (209)
- Towards a theory of spacetime structure at very short distances (1979) (182)
- The case for background independence (2005) (181)
- Time Reborn: From the Crisis in Physics to the Future of the Universe (2013) (170)
- How far are we from the quantum theory of gravity (2003) (169)
- Did the Universe Evolve (1992) (168)
- Quantum gravity with a positive cosmological constant (2002) (168)
- An invitation to loop quantum gravity (2004) (161)
- String theories with deformed energy momentum relations, and a possible nontachyonic bosonic string (2004) (152)
- 2+1 gravity and doubly special relativity (2003) (145)
- Covariant action for Ashtekar's form of canonical gravity (1988) (143)
- Prospects for constraining quantum gravity dispersion with near term observations (2009) (142)
- Fundamental quantum optics experiments conceivable with satellites—reaching relativistic distances and velocities (2012) (141)
- Quantization of unimodular gravity and the cosmological constant problems (2009) (131)
- 2+1 quantum gravity as a toy model for the 3+1 theory (1989) (126)
- Quantum deformation of quantum gravity (1995) (117)
- Quantum gravity and the standard model (2006) (112)
- Relative locality: a deepening of the relativity principle (2011) (108)
- Causal evolution of spin networks (1997) (107)
- The Chern-Simons invariant as the natural time variable for classical and quantum cosmology (1994) (106)
- Conservative solutions to the black hole information problem (2009) (104)
- Quantum geometry with intrinsic local causality (1997) (103)
- Scientific alternatives to the anthropic principle (2004) (93)
- A new characterization of half-flat solutions to Einstein's equation (1988) (92)
- The left-handed spin connection as a variable for canonical gravity (1987) (88)
- The singular universe and the reality of time : a proposal in natural philosophy (2014) (83)
- Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity (2010) (82)
- Quantum Graphity (2006) (82)
- Quantum theory from quantum gravity (2003) (79)
- M theory as a matrix extension of Chern–Simons theory (2000) (77)
- A Holographic formulation of quantum general relativity (1998) (70)
- Triply special relativity (2004) (69)
- The geometry of quantum spin networks (1995) (69)
- Falsifiable predictions from semiclassical quantum gravity (2005) (63)
- General relativity with a topological phase: An Action principle (2003) (63)
- Disordered locality in loop quantum gravity states (2007) (62)
- Atoms of space and time. (2004) (62)
- Anomalous cosmic-microwave-background polarization and gravitational chirality. (2008) (60)
- Could quantum mechanics be an approximation to another theory (2006) (58)
- The linearization of the Kodama state (2003) (58)
- The strong and weak holographic principles (2000) (57)
- The exceptional Jordan algebra and the matrix string (2001) (56)
- The universe as a process of unique events (2013) (55)
- A fixed point for quantum gravity (1982) (54)
- Exactly solvable quantum cosmologies from two killing field reductions of general relativity (1989) (54)
- A lattice approach to spinorial quantum gravity (1989) (53)
- Plebanski action extended to a unification of gravity and Yang-Mills theory (2007) (51)
- The classical limit and the form of the hamiltonian constraint in nonperturbative quantum gravity (1996) (49)
- Relative locality and the soccer ball problem (2011) (49)
- Invariants of links and critical points of the Chern-Simon path integrals (1989) (49)
- The cubic matrix model and a duality between strings and loops (2000) (48)
- On the intrinsic entropy of the gravitational field (1985) (47)
- On the nature of quantum fluctuations and their relation to gravitation and the principle of inertia (1986) (46)
- Einstein's Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum (2019) (46)
- Supersymmetric Spin Networks and Quantum Supergravity (1999) (46)
- The present moment in quantum cosmology: challenges to the arguments for the elimination of time (2000) (46)
- Quantum gravity on a lattice (1979) (46)
- The future of spin networks (1997) (45)
- The status of cosmological natural selection (2006) (44)
- Quantum energetic causal sets (2013) (44)
- A Real Ensemble Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (2011) (44)
- Gamma ray burst delay times probe the geometry of momentum space (2011) (39)
- Renormalization of general relativity on a background of spacetime foam (1986) (39)
- Gravitational radiative corrections as the origin of spontaneous symmetry breaking (1980) (39)
- Cosmology as a problem in critical phenomena (1995) (38)
- MOND as a regime of quantum gravity (2017) (38)
- Holography and the scale invariance of density fluctuations (2006) (37)
- Holography in a quantum spacetime (1999) (37)
- OPERA NEUTRINOS AND DEFORMED SPECIAL RELATIVITY (2012) (37)
- Unification of gravity, gauge fields and Higgs bosons (2010) (36)
- The fate of black hole singularities and the parameters of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology (1994) (36)
- Anomalous CMB polarization and gravitational chirality (2008) (35)
- Matrix Models as Non-Local Hidden Variables Theories (2005) (35)
- Quantum gravity and inflation (2003) (34)
- Gravitational origin of the weak interaction's chirality (2012) (34)
- Classical paradoxes of locality and their possible quantum resolutions in deformed special relativity (2010) (34)
- Holographic formulation of quantum supergravity (2000) (34)
- Recent Developments in Nonperturbative Quantum Gravity (1991) (34)
- Quantum fluctuations and inertia (1986) (33)
- The G Newton to 0 limit of Euclidean quantum gravity (1992) (33)
- Time, measurement and information loss in quantum cosmology (1993) (33)
- Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity (2006) (32)
- Does string theory solve the puzzles of black hole evaporation? (1987) (31)
- Recent Developments in Non-Perturbative Quantum Gravity (1992) (31)
- Unimodular loop quantum gravity and the problems of time (2010) (30)
- Graded manifold theory as the geometry of supersymmetry (1979) (30)
- Strings as perturbations of evolving spin networks (1998) (29)
- Nonperturbative dynamics for abstract (p,q) string networks (1997) (29)
- Eleven-dimensional supergravity as a constrained topological field theory (2000) (29)
- Symmetry and entropy of black hole horizons (2004) (29)
- The classical limit and the form of the hamiltonian constraint in non-perturbative quantum general relativity (2008) (28)
- Propagation and interaction of chiral states in quantum gravity (2007) (28)
- Beyond weird (2019) (28)
- Thermal instability for positive brane cosmological constant in the Randall-Sundrum cosmologies (2001) (27)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: An agenda for science (2014) (26)
- The thermodynamics of gravitational radiation (1984) (26)
- The Bekenstein Bound, Topological Quantum Field Theory and Pluralistic Quantum Field Theory (1995) (25)
- Cosmology of minimal varying Lambda theories (2019) (25)
- General relativity as the equation of state of spin foam (2012) (25)
- Temporal naturalism (2013) (25)
- Particle Identifications from Symmetries of Braided Ribbon Network Invariants (2008) (25)
- Extremal variety as the foundation of a cosmological quantum theory (1992) (24)
- The Bekenstein bound, topological quantum field theory and pluralistic quantum cosmology (1995) (24)
- A Perspective on the Landscape Problem (2012) (23)
- A Possible Solution to the Problem of Time in Quantum Cosmology (1997) (22)
- Could deformed special relativity naturally arise from the semiclassical limit of quantum gravity (2008) (21)
- LOOP REPRESENTATION FOR QUANTUM GRAVITY IN (2+1)-DIMENSIONS (1989) (21)
- Disordered locality as an explanation for the dark energy (2009) (21)
- The self–organization of space and time (2003) (21)
- Note on the Plebanski action with the cosmological constant and an Immirzi parameter (2009) (20)
- On limitations of the extent of inertial frames in non-commutative relativistic spacetimes (2010) (20)
- Did the Universe evolve? (1992) (20)
- Interaction-Free Effects Between Distant Atoms (2016) (20)
- Combinatorial dynamics in quantum gravity (1998) (20)
- A shape dynamical approach to holographic renormalization (2013) (20)
- An Action for higher spin gauge theory in four dimensions (2011) (20)
- Dynamics of the cosmological and Newton’s constant (2015) (20)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: The inclusive reality of time (2014) (20)
- The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe (2006) (20)
- A New discretization of classical and quantum general relativity (1993) (19)
- Space-time foam as the universal regulator (1985) (19)
- Quantum Mechanics and the Principle of Maximal Variety (2015) (19)
- Time asymmetric extensions of general relativity (2015) (19)
- LOOP REPRESENTATION FOR LATTICE GAUGE THEORY (1990) (19)
- Spin foam models as energetic causal sets (2014) (19)
- Time and symmetry in models of economic markets (2009) (18)
- Chern-Simons theory in 11 dimensions as a non-perturbative phase of M theory (1997) (18)
- The Dynamics of Difference (2017) (17)
- A Universe that Does Not Know the Time (2018) (17)
- Gauge fixing in causal dynamical triangulations (2004) (17)
- Self duality and quantization (1992) (16)
- Realism and causality. I. Pilot wave and retrocausal models as possible facilitators (2019) (16)
- Cosmological natural selection as the explanation for the complexity of the universe (2004) (16)
- The Quantum Cosmological Constant (2018) (16)
- Self-organized criticality in quantum gravity (2004) (16)
- Unification of the State with the Dynamical Law (2012) (15)
- High-energy behavior and second class constraints in quantum gravity (1984) (15)
- Towards a background independent approach to M theory (1998) (15)
- Zero-parameter extension of general relativity with a varying cosmological constant (2019) (15)
- A candidate for a background independent formulation of M theory (1999) (15)
- Combinatorial Dynamics and Time in Quantum Gravity (2000) (14)
- A quantization of topological M theory (2005) (14)
- The unique universe (2009) (14)
- ar X iv : h ep-t h / 92 02 02 2 v 1 7 F eb 1 99 2 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS in NONPERTURBATIVE QUANTUM GRAVITY (2008) (14)
- Covariant quantization of membrane dynamics (1997) (14)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: Mathematics (2014) (14)
- The new universe around the next corner (1999) (14)
- Precedence and Freedom in Quantum Physics (2012) (13)
- Fermions and Topology (1994) (13)
- The Maldacena conjecture and Rehren duality (2001) (13)
- Experimental signatures of quantum gravity (1995) (13)
- Coevolution of membranes and channels: A possible step in the origin of life (1997) (11)
- Time, laws, and the future of cosmology (2014) (11)
- Nonperturbative quantum gravity via the loop representation (1989) (11)
- What Are We Missing in Our Search for Quantum Gravity (2017) (11)
- Matrix universality of gauge field and gravitational dynamics (2008) (11)
- Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity (2016) (10)
- Quantum gravity and the statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (1986) (10)
- BRST quantization of Matrix Chern-Simons Theory (2002) (10)
- Four principles for quantum gravity (2016) (10)
- Phenomenological Quantum Gravity (2006) (10)
- Why gravity codes the renormalization of conformal field theories (2013) (9)
- Thermodynamics of quantum spacetime histories (2015) (9)
- 92 03 07 9 v 1 3 0 M ar 1 99 2 Weaving a classical geometry with quantum threads (2018) (9)
- Realism and causality. II. Retrocausality in energetic causal sets (2019) (9)
- Stochastic mechanics, hidden variables, and gravity. (1986) (9)
- Reversing the irreversible: From limit cycles to emergent time symmetry (2017) (9)
- Loop Quantum Gravity and planck Scale Phenomenology (2005) (9)
- The Autodidactic Universe (2021) (9)
- Using neutron stars and primordial black holes to test theories of quantum gravity (1997) (8)
- The black hole information paradox and relative locality (2011) (8)
- Holographic relations in loop quantum gravity (2016) (8)
- A naturalist account of the limited, and hence reasonable, effectiveness of mathematics in physics (2015) (7)
- Temporal Relationalism (2018) (7)
- Lessons from Einstein's 1915 discovery of general relativity (2015) (7)
- The quantum mechanics of the present (2021) (7)
- Science and Ultimate Reality: Quantum theories of gravity: results and prospects (2004) (7)
- The weak anthropic principle and the landscape of string theory (2009) (7)
- Positive energy in quantum gravity (2014) (6)
- Mixmaster quantum cosmology in terms of physical dynamics (1996) (6)
- Noisy soccer balls (2013) (6)
- The ground state of quantum gravity with positive cosmological constant (2002) (6)
- Cosmology in crisis (2014) (5)
- Time, Structure and Evolution in Cosmology (2003) (5)
- Enhanced color gauge invariance and a new di-photon state at the LHC (2016) (5)
- The Equivalence Principle and the Emergence of Flat Rotation Curves (2018) (5)
- Biocosmology: Towards the birth of a new science (2022) (4)
- String Theory and the Scientific Method (2014) (4)
- 2+1 quantum gravity as a toy model for the 3+1 theory (1989) (4)
- The GNewton to 0 limit of Euclidean quantum gravity (1992) (4)
- Quantum gravity faces reality (2006) (4)
- What can we learn from the study of non-perturbative quantum general relativity? (1992) (4)
- Matrix universality of gauge and gravitational dynamics (2008) (4)
- Physics, Time, and Qualia (2021) (4)
- Biocosmology: Biology from a cosmological perspective (2022) (3)
- Non-local beables (2015) (3)
- Three Dimensional Strings as Collective Coordinates of Four Dimensional Non-Perturbative Quantum Gravity (1996) (3)
- A geometry for non-abelian tensor gauge fields (1984) (3)
- Linking shape dynamics and loop quantum gravity (2014) (3)
- Workshop on Quantum Gravity and New Directions (1988) (3)
- The TAP equation: evaluating combinatorial innovation (2022) (3)
- A Cubic Matrix Action for the Standard Model and Beyond (2022) (3)
- Fermion Doubling in Loop Quantum Gravity (2015) (2)
- Matrix models as hidden variables theories (2002) (2)
- Superspace unmasked: The physical interpretation of supergravity theory (1981) (2)
- Mixed Reactions to ‘No New Einstein’ (2006) (2)
- M ay 2 00 5 Self-organized criticality in quantum gravity (2005) (2)
- Natural and bionic neuronal membranes: possible sites for quantum biology (2020) (2)
- Galactic disks as reaction-diffusion systems (1996) (2)
- It's time to rewrite time (2013) (2)
- A New Class of Renormalizable and Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories (1984) (2)
- Never say always (2006) (2)
- Cosmological Natural Selection (2021) (1)
- Extending Dualities to Trialities Deepens the Foundations of Dynamics (2015) (1)
- Emergence of the standard model from quantum gravity (2006) (1)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: The selective realism of mathematics (2014) (1)
- A quantum leap for cosmology (2001) (1)
- A ug 1 99 9 Supersymmetric Spin Networks and Quantum Supergravity (2000) (1)
- THE MAIN POSTULATES AND RESULTS OF LOOP QUANTUM GRAVITY (2006) (1)
- Subtle Technologies 03 (2003) (1)
- COMPOSITE HIGGS BOSONS FROM AN EXTENDED GAUGE SYMMETRY (1984) (1)
- General Relativity and Gravitation, 1989: New Hamiltonian variables (1990) (1)
- Reply to ``Comment on `Relative locality and the soccer ball problem''' (2013) (1)
- Twistor relative locality (2013) (1)
- 92 02 07 9 v 1 2 4 Fe b 19 92 Self Duality and Quantization (1992) (1)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: Approaches to solving the meta-law dilemma (2014) (0)
- “Hot-spotting” to improve vaccine allocation by harnessing digital contact tracing technology: An application of percolation theory (2021) (0)
- A pr 2 00 7 Disordered locality in loop quantum gravity states (2008) (0)
- Rolling Up Our Sleeves (2021) (0)
- Never say aways (2006) (0)
- Today Time , laws , and the future of cosmology (0)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: Principles for a cosmological theory (2014) (0)
- Justifying the Laws (2021) (0)
- 10 38 2 v 1 [ gr-q c ] 2 4 M ay 2 01 9 The cosmology of minimal varying Lambda theories (2019) (0)
- Quantum reference frames and triality (2020) (0)
- NONPERTURBATIVE QUANTUM GRAVITY (2008) (0)
- 03 10 22 4 v 3 2 8 O ct 2 00 3 The linearization of the Kodama state (2018) (0)
- The setting: the puzzles of contemporary cosmology (2014) (0)
- Examining Time (2021) (0)
- ul 2 00 3 2 + 1 gravity and Doubly Special Relativity (2005) (0)
- Gauge fixing in Causal Dynamical (2008) (0)
- A pr 2 01 1 Relative locality and the soccer ball problem (2021) (0)
- 04 06 27 6 v 1 3 0 Ju n 20 04 Triply Special Relativity (0)
- The singular existence of the universe (2014) (0)
- A lattice approach to spinorial quantum gravity (1989) (0)
- Ju n 20 05 An invitation to Loop Quantum Gravity (2004) (0)
- The context and consequences of the argument (2014) (0)
- Scientific Impact (2021) (0)
- 2 2 Se p 19 98 Combinatorial dynamics in quantum gravity (1998) (0)
- Physics via Architecture (2021) (0)
- The Meta-law Dilemma (2021) (0)
- LOOP QUANTUM GRAVITY: LEE SMOLIN [2 (2011) (0)
- The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: The mutability of the laws of nature (2014) (0)
- Matters of Gravity (2005) (0)
- Views, variety and celestial spheres (2022) (0)
- F eb 1 99 4 CGPG-94 / 2-1 gr-qc / 9402018 Cosmological Histories for the New Variables (2021) (0)
- Black holes in cosmological natural selection (2014) (0)
- The science of the one universe in time (2014) (0)
- Implications of temporal naturalism for the philosophy of mind (2014) (0)
- Embracing Nature's Imperfections (2010) (0)
- Cosmology: Space‐time turn around (2010) (0)
- The nature and scope of this work (2014) (0)
- 27 6 v 1 30 J un 2 00 4 Triply Special Relativity (2004) (0)
- Covariant action for Ashtekar's form of canonical gravity (1988) (0)
- N ov 2 00 4 Symmetry and entropy of black hole horizons (2009) (0)
- Unification of gravitation with particle physics via metric-connection theories. (1986) (0)
- Views, variety and quantum mechanics (2021) (0)
- Physicists, don't go by the book (1999) (0)
- Making A Difference (2021) (0)
- Space and Particles at the Planck Scale by Tomasz Konopka (2007) (0)
- Hypotheses for a new cosmology (2014) (0)
- Effect of nociceptive stimulation of signal transmission from low-threshold cutaneous afferents in the somatosensory system (2005) (0)
- On the nature of quantum fluctuations and their relation to gravitation and the principle of inertia (1986) (0)
- Non-local Field Theory from Matrix Models (2022) (0)
- 9 v 1 1 F eb 2 00 0 M theory as a matrix extension of Chern-Simons theory (2000) (0)
- A pr 2 01 1 A real ensemble interpretation of quantum mechanics (2011) (0)

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