Guide to Controversial Topics

Guide to Controversial Topics

We present a list of some of the most controversial topics today. These talking points can be the perfect jumping-off point for a research paper, help in preparing for an exam, or fodder for a heated debate.

Cover, The Complete Guide to Contract Cheating in Higher Education
Cover, The Complete Guide to Contract Cheating in Higher Education

Controversy is everywhere. As college students, you have an opportunity to immerse yourself in these controversies, to learn everything you can, and to decide your level of involvement in the public debate. And of course, there’s a good chance you’ll have to write about some of these controversial subjects during your college education.

This makes our list of controversial issues a great starting point on countless important topics in current events from global warming and universal health care to foreign affairs and the role of religious belief in the federal government. Whether you’re starting a research paper or preparing for an exam; seeking a topic for a debate class or getting involved in real-world policy issues, you can start your exploration of numerous controversies here.

Read on for a look at the controversial debate topics most directly shaping public discourse, and indeed, shaping public life in American today.

For a little more on the role of controversy in higher education, we ask the question: Should We Ban Controversy in the Classroom?

And for the lighter side of controversy, check out these funny controversial topics.

The 30 Most Controversial Topics Over the Last 25 Years

Find the perfect starting point for your position paper or argumentative essay on anything from “cancel culture” to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; from the role of religious beliefs in the public forum to the plight of undocumented immigrants, and much more.

    Civil Rights to Abortion

  1. Civil rights gathering in DC

    Civil Rights

    The Civil Rights Movement refers to one of the most consequential struggles in American history, one that continues to the present date. Civil Rights refer to the freedoms, liberties, and protections under the law that are meant to be accorded to all people.

    But civil rights advocates argue that racial inequality is ingrained in American life through realities like economic disenfranchisement, police brutality, and mass incarceration. The Civil Rights controversy pits groups, organizations, and communities who advocate for greater racial equality against those who work to maintain or advance a white racial hierarchy.

  2. Learn more about the Civil Rights Controversy.

  3. Censorship and Freedom of Speech

    The First Amendment in the Bill of Rights protects the freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of religious expression, and the right to a free press against government restriction. As a key component in the very first article of the Bill of Rights, free speech is among the most cherished and frequently-cited protections built into the U.S. Constitution.

    However, because the content of that speech and expression may itself provoke sharp disagreement, the true controversy in this issue extends from differing ideas about what constitutes “protected speech” as well as the methods that should or shouldn’t be used to limit free speech. This underscores the debate around Freedom of Speech and Censorship.

  4. Climate Change

    The climate change debate concerns the impact of human activity on the earth’s temperature, as well as its impact on weather patterns, plant-life, wildlife, and human health. On one side of the debate, most in the scientific community believe that human activity is responsible for climate change.

    On the other side, some journalists, political leaders, and industry advocates argue either that global climate change is not actually occurring, or that climate change is the result of natural meteorological patterns unrelated to human activity. Some also argue that economic imperatives should be prioritized over environmental concerns.

    Stand on the front lines in the fight against climate change with a degree in environmental science.

  5. Learn more about the Climate Change Controversy.

  6. Death Penalty/Capital Punishment

    Capital punishment refers to the use of the death penalty as a form of legal punishment administered by the state. Capital punishment in the U.S. has long been the subject of constitutional, philosophical and practical disagreement, and as such, has been subject to legal fluctuation.

    As of the time of writing, the United States is one of 56 nations worldwide, and one of just four developed democracies (alongside Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore) which uses the death penalty. The U.S. is also the only developed Western nation to employ capital punishment.

  7. Abortion protest


    Abortion refers to the act of terminating a pregnancy before it can be carried to term. The abortion controversy concerns the ongoing debate and battle over the legal status of abortion in the U.S., both at the state and national levels.

    Abortion is among the most divisive issues in American public discourse. Views on abortion often carry religious, political, and cultural overtones. The debate is largely framed by two competing views: The Pro-Choice view, that abortion is a woman’s constitutionally-protected right; and the Pro-Life view, that abortion is immoral, and that the government should have the right to restrict and/or punish abortion.

  8. Learn more about the Abortion Controversy.

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    Social Security to Religious Freedom

  10. Social Security

    Social Security refers to the federal social insurance program in the United States, which provides financial and medical benefits to older Americans, as well as the disabled and some who have been widowed or orphaned by working age adults. All working Americans contribute to Social Security through a dedicated payroll tax.

    The Social Security controversy refers to a complex economic and philosophical debate over how Social Security should be funded, dispersed, and managed. Some advocate for its continuity as a federal program while others argue that social security should be privatized and removed from government control.

  11. Learn more about the Social Security Controversy.

  12. Sticky note with A.I. written on it

    Artificial Intelligence

    Artificial intelligence (AI), in the simplest terms, refers to computing which aims to mimic human cognitive functions like learning, problem solving, and adaptation to environmental conditions. With the evolution of computer science, computing machines have accelerated in their capacity to demonstrate “intelligence” in areas such as reasoning, planning, natural language processing, perception, and much more.

    Advance the technology behind AI, machine learning, automation, and more with a degree in data science and analytics.

  13. Health Insurance

    Health Insurance refers to financial coverage for healthcare expenses. Health coverage is among the most intensely debated subjects in American life, both because of the generally high cost of healthcare expenses, and because access to coverage varies significantly based on employment and socioeconomic status.

    Some Americans believe the government should take greater responsibility for the millions who are uninsured or underinsured, with many arguing that the United States should provide universal medical and mental health coverage for all Americans. By contrast, others believe that paying for health coverage should be the individual responsibility of every American, and argue that universal healthcare coverage is a socialist policy.

  14. Learn more about the Health Insurance Controversy.

  15. Women’s Rights

    Women’s Rights refers to the ongoing movement in the U.S. to improve gender equity through legislation, activism, public service, political participation, and more. The United States was founded as a patriarchy, restricting women from owning property, voting, or enjoying the rights of citizenship.

    The women’s rights movement uses activism, policy advocacy, and non-profit organization to improve gender equality and close the gender pay gap, whereas the opponents of this movement may argue that gender equality already exists, or that women are biologically unequal to men and therefore deserving of secondary status.

    Advance the public discussion on women’s rights and equality with a degree in gender studies.

  16. Learn more about the Women’s Rights Controversy.

  17. The Catholic Pope in a crowd of people

    Religious Freedom

    On its surface, the controversy over religious freedom in the U.S. concerns the right of individuals to practice their religion freely and without infringement by individuals, groups, or the government. But since the dawn of American history, the debate over religious liberty has been clouded by conflicts between different groups and belief systems, especially when the belief system of one group risks discrimination against another group.

    While the right to practice one’s religion is a core Constitutional protection, debate persists over the meaning of religious freedom and whether this freedom can be used to exempt groups from certain laws, including anti-discrimination laws.

  18. Learn more about the Religious Freedom Controversy.

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    Minimum Wage to Labor Unions

  20. Minimum Wage

    Minimum wage refers to the lowest hourly wage that an employer may legally pay an employee under state and federal law. The controversy over the minimum wage concerns the belief that a living wage should be a fundamental right for all American workers and is opposed by the belief that regulatory control over wage thresholds risks imposing undue economic burdens on employers with potentially deleterious effects on the economy as a whole.

  21. Learn more about the Minimum Wage Controversy.

  22. Atheism

    Atheism is defined as the absence of a belief in deities, or the rejection of a belief in deities, or the belief that no deities exist. These nuances underscore the complexity of individual views on religion and theology, and by extension, the complexity of this debate.

    The controversy over atheism concerns disagreement between those who believe in the existence of deities and those who do not believe in the existence of deities, and more specifically, how these divergent beliefs should be treated in public spaces. As a result, this controversy touches closely on issues of religious freedom, the separation of church and state, and freedom of expression.

  23. Learn more about the Atheism Controversy.

  24. A chain laying on the U.S. flag


    Reparations for slavery refers to the idea of compensating the victims of African slavery and their descendants for the abuses suffered under U.S. law. The idea of reparations for the victims of African slavery in America emerged as early as the colonial era, but took on particular relevance after the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation.

    While some individual former slaves and their descendants have received reparations of some type, the vast majority have not, owing to the absence of any lasting or comprehensive federal policy. This absence keeps the reparations controversy relevant, as advocates, activists, and public leaders continue to call for the adoption of some form of reparations, both in compensation for slavery, and for the injustices visited upon succeeding generations of Black Americans.

  25. Learn more about the Reparations Controversy.

  26. Hacking

    Hacking refers to the use of computing skills to penetrate, disrupt, or interfere with a computer system by non-standard avenues. Hacking is a controversial issue because this skill can be used for many different purposes both lawful and unlawful; ethical and unethical.

    Some hackers use their skills for criminal activities while others may use their skills to create cybersecurity defenses against malicious actors. Activists may use hacking to undermine dictatorship just as dictators might use hacking to suppress individual liberties.

    Help in the fight against criminal hacking with a degree in cybersecurity.

  27. Learn more about the Hacking Controversy.

  28. Labor Unions

    A labor union refers to an organized alliance of workers, often joined by a shared industry or trade, but also frequently joined across different labor industries. Labor unions use a tactic referred to as collective bargaining to improve worker conditions, advance wages, and secure benefits, as well as supporting members in disputes with management, and engaging in political action and lobbying.

    The controversy over labor unions concerns the historical and ongoing conflict of ideals, methods, and goals between labor leaders, organizers and union members on one side, and business management, ownership, and industry lobby groups on the other side.

  29. Learn more about the Labor Unions Controversy.

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    Extremism to Gun Control

  31. Extremism

    Extremism refers to beliefs and actions that are of an extreme or fanatical nature. Extremism is often connected to political, religious or racialist ideologies that fall far outside of the mainstream.

    Extremism is often associated with fringe groups such as white supremacists, jihadist terrorists, or religious fundamentalists, and is distinguished from traditional activism for its radical and sometimes violent methods. The controversy over extremism centers on the disagreement between those who subscribe to extremist views and extremist actions, and those who reject the views or methods of extremism, as well as those who work actively to prevent extremism.

    Gain a better understanding of the reasons people resort to extremism with a degree in psychology.

  32. Learn more about the Extremism Controversy.

  33. A pair of hand submitting a vote

    Electoral College

    The United States Electoral College is a group of 538 delegates—representing the 50 United States and the District of Columbia—who meet every four years to elect the President and Vice President of the United States. Though the Electoral College is written into the U.S. Constitution, it is also a source of ongoing controversy.

    This is because the outcome of the electoral vote is the sole determinant of the presidency. Critics argue that this model renders the national popular vote meaningless, undermines the principle of “one-person, one vote,” and results in widespread voter disenfranchisement. Debate over the Electoral College has been magnified by recent elections in which the winner of the national popular vote did not win the electoral vote and thus, did not win the presidency.

  34. Learn more about the Electoral College Controversy.

  35. Vaccines

    The term vaccine refers to a form of medical treatment which may be used to preemptively inoculate individuals and populations against infectious diseases. The controversy over vaccines stems from a social phenomenon called vaccine hesitancy, as well as an organized anti-vaccination, or anti-vax, movement. Those who support the use of vaccines point to extensive scientific evidence that vaccines are both safe and effective, whereas those who oppose vaccines believe that vaccines are either unnecessary or unsafe.

  36. Learn more about the Vaccines Controversy.

  37. Outsourcing

    Outsourcing refers to the business practice of hiring outside consultants, freelance workers, or third-party agencies to complete work that might otherwise be handled in-house. The practice of outsourcing is also highly connected to the rise of globalization, free-trade, and the practice of “offshoring,” in which American companies will open facilities and employ laborers in other countries where wage standards, environmental restrictions, and costs of operation are lower.

    The outsourcing controversy centers on the conflicting interests of corporate profitability and free market capitalism on one side, and, on the other side, concerns over heightened American unemployment and the exploitation of low-wage workers in the developing sphere.

  38. Learn more about the Outsourcing Controversy.

  39. A gun laying on the U.S. constitution

    Gun Control

    Gun Control refers to legislation aimed at curbing gun violence in America. The gun control controversy centers on disagreement between sectors of the American public, as well as their political representatives, over the legal implications of the Second Amendment of the Constitution, which grants Americans the right to bear arms.

    Some argue that the ongoing public health crisis of gun violence necessitates more restrictions around gun manufacturing, sales, and ownership while others argue that such regulation is unconstitutional, disagree that stricter gun control laws would lower the occurrence of gun violence, and often point to underlying issues such as mental illness and the need for better training of police officers.

  40. Learn more about the Gun Control Controversy.

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    Foreign Aid to Charter Schools

  42. Foreign Aid

    United States foreign aid, also referred to as foreign assistance or international aid, is “aid given by the United States to other countries to support global peace, security, and development efforts, and provide humanitarian relief during times of crisis,” according to The controversy over foreign aid divides those who believe there are strategic, economic, and moral imperatives justifying this use of American resources for foreign aid versus those who believe this is a misappropriation of funding that should instead be spent on domestic priorities.

  43. Learn more about the Foreign Aid Controversy.

  44. Nuclear Energy

    Nuclear energy refers to the use of nuclear reactions such as nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and nuclear decay in order to produce power. The controversy over nuclear energy concerns both its perceived impact on the environment and its capacity for weaponization.

    The history of nuclear energy centers on the expansion of war-making capabilities and, specifically, the creation of weapons capable of mass casualty and mass destruction. But over time, nuclear energy has also become at once an ingrained part of the power grid in the United States and the world. Today, the global debate over nuclear energy concerns its safety, environmental impact, capacity for civil energy production, and its global proliferation as a source of potentially catastrophic weaponry.

  45. Learn more about the Nuclear Energy Controversy.

  46. A police car in front of a police memorial gathering

    Police Brutality

    Police brutality refers to the use of excessive or unnecessary force by law enforcement officers, but may also refer to excessive force used by corrections officers and prison officials. The controversy over police brutality centers on disagreement over the extent of force that law enforcement should be entitled to use while engaging suspects, perpetrators, prisoners, and other members of the general public.

    Those who believe that police brutality is a problem would argue that the current system of law enforcement gives officers too much discretion and impunity in using violent methods of engagement while those who don’t believe police brutality is a problem would argue that the dangerous nature of law enforcement requires that officers have far-reaching discretion in carrying out their duty, including the use of potentially violent confrontational tactics.

    Help bring an end to police brutality with a degree in criminal justice.

  47. Learn more about the Police Brutality Controversy.

  48. Affirmative Action

    Affirmative action refers to an array of policies and practices aimed at redressing historical and ingrained inequalities, especially those experienced by people of color and women as a consequence of systemic discrimination. Affirmative action usually takes the form of education and employment initiatives aimed at creating access and opportunities for individuals from groups that have faced such discrimination.

    The controversy over affirmative action divides those who believe this is an effective way to push back against the sociological impact of systemic discrimination versus those who believe affirmative action is either ineffective or is, itself, a discriminatory policy.

  49. Learn more about the Affirmative Action Controversy.

  50. Charter Schools

    A charter school is an educational institution that provides free and uniquely structured educational opportunities to students and families seeking an alternative to traditional public school. Charter schools are a product of the demand for greater school choice, especially in cities where public schools often struggle to provide a high quality educational experience.

    The controversy over charter schools concerns the belief that charter schools are a valuable alternative to traditional public schooling, especially for disadvantaged or at-risk student populations versus the belief that charter schools divert funding and resources from traditional public schools.

  51. Learn more about the Charter Schools Controversy.

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    Trump to Marajuana

  53. Trump and the “Big Lie”

    The controversy over Trump and the “Big Lie” centers on the results of the 2020 U.S. Presidential Election and Donald Trump’s efforts to overturn these results. In the months leading up to the November election, sitting President Donald Trump and his supporters and allies made widespread preemptive allegations that the outcome of the election would be rigged, and that a massive conspiracy was already underway involving crooked Democratic operatives, corrupt state voting commissions, preprogrammed voting machines, foreign Communist interference, and more.

  54. Learn more about the Trump and the “Big Lie”.

  55. A black lives matter protest

    Black Lives Matter

    Black Lives Matter is a modern protest movement centered around civil rights causes impacting Black Americans, especially as they relate to police brutality, vigilante violence, and institutional inequality in the American legal system. Black Lives Matter is at once a multi-chapter organization with concentrated leadership and a decentralized global movement engaged in widespread activism.

  56. Learn more about the Black Lives Matter Movement.

  57. COVID Vaccine Mandates

    A new surge in cases is gripping the United States. Schools all over the country are adopting vaccine mandates. Vaccine skeptics argue these mandates are a violation of individual liberties. A prominent anti-vaccination activist writes “Vaccination is the putting of an impure thing into the blood — a virus or poison — often resulting in serious evil effects. In vogue for more than one hundred years, it has been received by most persons without question. Yet the time is passing when people will accept a medical dogma on blind faith; they now demand to know something about the practices to which they are called on to submit.”

  58. Critical Race Theory

    The controversy over Critical Race Theory (CRT) centers on whether or not this subject should be taught in schools. And to an extent, the Critical Race Theory controversy also extends from differing views on exactly what defines Critical Race Theory.

    To supporters, Critical Race Theory refers to a university-level subject that addresses the intersection between race, law, and systemic inequality. To opponents, Critical Race Theory refers to any effort to inject discourse over race, gender, diversity, or discrimination into public school curriculum at any level of education. The result of these differing views—both on what defines CRT, and whether it should be taught in schools—is a heated public debate being placed out in city council chambers, school board meetings, and the halls of Congress.

    Learn more about the Critical Race Theory Controversy:

  59. Marijuana Legalization

    The cannabis industry is in a state of steady growth. For students already with a background in subjects like business, law, chemistry, and plant biology, this growth represents great professional opportunity. And for students interested in taking a more direct route to a career in medical marijuana or cultivation, a number of fully accredited colleges and universities now offer courses, certifications, minors, and even four-year bachelor’s degrees in cannabis studies.

    We’ve highlighted the top schools for studying marijuana—and as a bonus, we’ve included a ranking of the Top Cannabis Influencers and the Most Influential Books About Cannabis from the last half-century.

The topics listed above have been selected for their relevance to current events. However, this is not an exhaustive list. We anticipate expanding this list of controversial issues over time. Topics we may explore in the future include the skyrocketing college student loan debt, requiring students to wear school uniforms, drug abuse, the impact of violent video games; the voting age, gender identity and trans rights, corporal punishment, the Green New Deal, and more.

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Cover, The Complete Guide to Contract Cheating in Higher Education
Cover, The Complete Guide to Contract Cheating in Higher Education