# Judea Pearl

Computer scientist

## Judea Pearl's AcademicInfluence.com Rankings

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Computer Science

## Why Is Judea Pearl Influential?

(Suggest an Edit or Addition)According to Wikipedia, Judea Pearl is an Israeli-American computer scientist and philosopher, best known for championing the probabilistic approach to artificial intelligence and the development of Bayesian networks . He is also credited for developing a theory of causal and counterfactual inference based on structural models . In 2011, the Association for Computing Machinery awarded Pearl with the Turing Award, the highest distinction in computer science, "for fundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning". He is the author of several books, including the technical Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference, and The Book of Why, a book on causality aimed at the general public.

## Judea Pearl's Published Works

### Published Works

- Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems - networks of plausible inference (1991) (18902)
- Causality: Models, Reasoning and Inference (2000) (11650)
- Probabilistic reasoning in intelligent systems (1988) (4682)
- Causal diagrams for epidemiologic research. (1999) (2525)
- Heuristics - intelligent search strategies for computer problem solving (1984) (2223)
- Fusion, Propagation, and Structuring in Belief Networks (1986) (2210)
- Temporal Constraint Networks (1989) (2168)
- Causal diagrams for empirical research (1995) (2110)
- Direct and Indirect Effects (2001) (1879)
- Causal inference in statistics: An overview (2009) (1617)
- Equivalence and Synthesis of Causal Models (1990) (1322)
- Generalized best-first search strategies and the optimality of A* (1985) (1063)
- Causal Inference (2008) (1058)
- Reverend Bayes on Inference Engines: A Distributed Hierarchical Approach (1982) (932)
- Bayesian Networks (1998) (906)
- A Theory of Inferred Causation (1991) (861)
- Causal Inference in Statistics: A Primer (2016) (815)
- Confounding and Collapsibility in Causal Inference (1999) (812)
- Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach. Part I: Causes (2000) (716)
- On the Logic of Iterated Belief Revision (1994) (660)
- Network-Based Heuristics for Constraint-Satisfaction Problems (1987) (637)
- Tree Clustering for Constraint Networks (1989) (632)
- Chapter 2 – BAYESIAN INFERENCE (1988) (569)
- Bounds on Treatment Effects from Studies with Imperfect Compliance (1997) (563)
- CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN SUPERCONDUCTING FILMS CARRYING QUANTIZED FLUXOIDS (1964) (560)
- Identifying independence in bayesian networks (1990) (526)
- Causal networks: semantics and expressiveness (2013) (509)
- EIGHT MYTHS ABOUT CAUSALITY AND STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELS (2013) (496)
- Causal inference and the data-fusion problem (2016) (471)
- Readings in Uncertain Reasoning (1990) (418)
- System Z: A Natural Ordering of Defaults with Tractable Applications to Nonmonotonic Reasoning (1990) (416)
- Causes and explanations: A structural-model approach (2000) (414)
- A Computational Model for Causal and Diagnostic Reasoning in Inference Systems (1983) (404)
- Evidential Reasoning Using Stochastic Simulation of Causal Models (1987) (401)
- External Validity: From Do-Calculus to Transportability Across Populations (2014) (385)
- Interpretation and Identification of Causal Mediation (2013) (367)
- Network-based heuristics for constraint satisfaction problems (1988) (364)
- The seven tools of causal inference, with reflections on machine learning (2019) (362)
- Causal Diagrams (2011) (341)
- Qualitative Probabilities for Default Reasoning, Belief Revision, and Causal Modeling (1996) (328)
- A general identification condition for causal effects (2002) (321)
- Graphs, Causality, and Structural Equation Models (1998) (307)
- Identifiability of Path-Specific Effects (2005) (300)
- The Causal Mediation Formula—A Guide to the Assessment of Pathways and Mechanisms (2012) (300)
- The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect (2018) (292)
- An Algorithm for Deciding if a Set of Observed Independencies Has a Causal Explanation (1992) (290)
- Identification of Joint Interventional Distributions in Recursive Semi-Markovian Causal Models (2006) (280)
- The Causal Foundations of Structural Equation Modeling (2012) (275)
- Theoretical Impediments to Machine Learning With Seven Sparks from the Causal Revolution (2018) (248)
- Transportability of Causal and Statistical Relations: A Formal Approach (2011) (245)
- Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach. Part II: Explanations (2001) (241)
- Conditional Entailment: Bridging two Approaches to Default Reasoning (1992) (232)
- A Constraint-Propagation Approach to Probabilistic Reasoning (1985) (224)
- An Axiomatic Characterization of Causal Counterfactuals (1998) (221)
- Counterfactual Probabilities: Computational Methods, Bounds and Applications (1994) (220)
- An Introduction to Causal Inference (2009) (212)
- Reasoning with belief functions: An analysis of compatibility (1990) (211)
- Rank-based Systems: A Simple Approach to Belief Revision, Belief Update, and Reasoning about Evidence and Actions (1992) (208)
- d-Separation: From Theorems to Algorithms (2013) (206)
- The recovery of causal poly-trees from statistical data (1987) (200)
- Distributed Revision of Composite Beliefs (1987) (199)
- Complete Identification Methods for the Causal Hierarchy (2008) (198)
- Identification of Conditional Interventional Distributions (2006) (198)
- Studies in Semi-Admissible Heuristics (1982) (189)
- Measurement bias and effect restoration in causal inference (2014) (188)
- Probabilistic Semantics for Nonmonotonic Reasoning: A Survey (1989) (179)
- A Maximum Entropy Approach to Nonmonotonic Reasoning (1990) (179)
- Statistics and causal inference: A review (2003) (176)
- Comment: Understanding Simpson’s Paradox (2014) (175)
- Probabilistic evaluation of sequential plans from causal models with hidden variables (1995) (174)
- Logical and Algorithmic Properties of Conditional Independence and Graphical Models (1993) (172)
- Asymptotic Properties of Minimax Trees and Game-Searching Procedures (1980) (167)
- A General Algorithm for Deciding Transportability of Experimental Results (2013) (166)
- On the Testable Implications of Causal Models with Hidden Variables (2002) (163)
- On a Class of Bias-Amplifying Variables that Endanger Effect Estimates (2010) (163)
- On Evidential Reasoning in a Hierarchy of Hypotheses (1990) (163)
- The Mediation Formula: A Guide to the Assessment of Causal Pathways in Nonlinear Models (2011) (160)
- Probabilistic Evaluation of Counterfactual Queries (1994) (159)
- Causal inference in statistics (2016) (158)
- [Bayesian Analysis in Expert Systems]: Comment: Graphical Models, Causality and Intervention (1993) (156)
- Probabilities of causation: Bounds and identification (2000) (155)
- Invited commentary: understanding bias amplification. (2011) (153)
- On the logic of causal models (2013) (148)
- Controlling Selection Bias in Causal Inference (2011) (147)
- The Logic of Representing Dependencies by Directed Graphs (1987) (146)
- Generalized Instrumental Variables (2002) (145)
- Structure Identification in Relational Data (1992) (144)
- On the Testability of Causal Models With Latent and Instrumental Variables (1995) (142)
- Graphical Models for Probabilistic and Causal Reasoning (1997) (141)
- Qualitative Decision Theory (1994) (140)
- Embracing Causality in Default Reasoning (1988) (137)
- On the Identification of Causal Effects (2015) (133)
- On the Consistency Rule in Causal Inference: Axiom, Definition, Assumption, or Theorem? (2010) (133)
- From Conditional Oughts to Qualitative Decision Theory (1993) (129)
- Recovering from Selection Bias in Causal and Statistical Inference (2014) (128)
- Causal Discovery from Changes (2001) (127)
- Belief Networks Revisited (1993) (116)
- Causal Counterfactual Theory for the Attribution of Weather and Climate-Related Events (2016) (115)
- ON THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE COMPLEXITY AND CREDIBILITY OF INFERRED MODELS (1978) (114)
- Bandits with Unobserved Confounders: A Causal Approach (2015) (114)
- Principal Stratification -- a Goal or a Tool? (2011) (113)
- The solution for the branching factor of the alpha-beta pruning algorithm and its optimality (1982) (112)
- Comment: Graphical Models, Causality and Intervention (2016) (111)
- Probabilities Of Causation: Three Counterfactual Interpretations And Their Identification (1999) (110)
- A Probabilistic Calculus of Actions (1994) (110)
- A Crash Course in Good and Bad Controls (2020) (109)
- 3. The Foundations of Causal Inference (2010) (108)
- Comparison of the cosine and Fourier transforms of Markov-1 signals (1976) (108)
- Linear Models: A Useful “Microscope” for Causal Analysis (2013) (107)
- Intelligent Search Strategies for Computer Problem Solving (1984) (106)
- Causal Inference in the Health Sciences: A Conceptual Introduction (2001) (105)
- Graphical Models for Inference with Missing Data (2013) (105)
- Axioms and Algorithms for Inferences Involving Probabilistic Independence (1991) (104)
- Transportability of Causal Effects: Completeness Results (2012) (103)
- Bounds on Direct Effects in the Presence of Confounded Intermediate Variables (2008) (103)
- The Do-Calculus Revisited (2012) (102)
- On the Nature of Pathology in Game Searching (1983) (99)
- GRAPHOIDS: Graph-Based Logic for Reasoning about Relevance Relations OrWhen Would x Tell You More about y If You Already Know z? (1986) (99)
- What Counterfactuals Can Be Tested (2007) (98)
- Axioms of Causal Relevance (1997) (98)
- A New Identification Condition for Recursive Models With Correlated Errors (2002) (96)
- Structure of Superconductive Vortices near a Metal‐Air Interface (1966) (96)
- Causal Inference by Surrogate Experiments: z-Identifiability (2012) (96)
- Searching for an Optimal Path in a Tree with Random Costs (1983) (95)
- On coding and filtering stationary signals by discrete Fourier transforms (Corresp.) (1973) (95)
- Counterfactuals and Policy Analysis in Structural Models (1995) (93)
- Testing Identifiability of Causal Effects (1995) (92)
- On Measurement Bias in Causal Inference (2010) (92)
- Reasoning with Cause and Effect (1999) (91)
- Graphical Models for Processing Missing Data (2018) (90)
- Identifying Independencies in Causal Graphs with Feedback (1996) (89)
- Transportability from Multiple Environments with Limited Experiments: Completeness Results (2014) (86)
- Structuring causal trees (1986) (86)
- Bayesianism and Causality, or, Why I am Only a Half-Bayesian (2001) (86)
- Adjustments and their Consequences—Collapsibility Analysis using Graphical Models (2010) (84)
- Remarks on the method of propensity score (2009) (82)
- Studies in causal reasoning and learning (2002) (82)
- Causal inference from indirect experiments (1995) (81)
- Myth, Confusion, and Science in Causal Analysis (2009) (79)
- Tree-Clustering Schemes for Constraint-Processing (1988) (79)
- From Bayesian networks to causal networks (1995) (78)
- Convince: A Conversational Inference Consolidation Engine (1987) (76)
- Embracing Causality in Formal Reasoning (1987) (72)
- How to Do with Probabilities What People Say You Can't (1985) (72)
- On the Consistency of Defeasible Databases (1991) (71)
- Meta-Transportability of Causal Effects: A Formal Approach (2013) (70)
- Transportability across studies: A formal approach (2011) (69)
- Effects of Treatment on the Treated: Identification and Generalization (2009) (69)
- Why there is no statistical test for confounding, why many think there is, and why they are almost right (1998) (68)
- System-Z+: A Formalism for Reasoning with Variable-Strength Defaults (1991) (67)
- TRYGVE HAAVELMO AND THE EMERGENCE OF CAUSAL CALCULUS (2013) (66)
- A Clinician's Tool for Analyzing Non-Compliance (1996) (65)
- Causation, Action and Counterfactuals (1996) (64)
- Generalizing Experimental Findings (2015) (64)
- Specification and Evaluation of Preferences Under Uncertainty (1994) (63)
- THE FOUNDATIONS OF CAUSAL INFERENCE (2011) (62)
- A Minimax Algorithm Better Than Alpha-Beta? Yes and No (1983) (62)
- The optimality of A (1988) (61)
- A Framework for Reasoning with Defaults (1990) (61)
- Counterfactual Data-Fusion for Online Reinforcement Learners (2017) (58)
- An Improved Constraint-Propagation Algorithm for Diagnosis (1987) (56)
- Knowledge Versus Search: A Quantitative Analysis Using A* (1983) (56)
- Symbolic Causal Networks (1994) (56)
- Conditional independence and its representations (1990) (56)
- Understanding Simpson's Paradox (2013) (55)
- Influence Diagrams - Historical and Personal Perspectives (2005) (55)
- Some Recent Results in Heuristic Search Theory (1984) (54)
- Bayesian and belief-functions formalisms for evidential reasoning: a conceptual analysis (1990) (54)
- On the Discovery and Generation of Certain Heuristics (1983) (52)
- Graphical Models, Causality, and Intervention (2011) (52)
- Learning Causal Trees from Dependence Information (1990) (52)
- Lord’s Paradox Revisited – (Oh Lord! Kumbaya!) (2016) (51)
- The electrical conductance properties of blood in motion. (1962) (51)
- Causes of Effects and Effects of Causes (2015) (50)
- Performance Measures for Transform Data Coding (1972) (50)
- Does Obesity Shorten Life? Or is it the Soda? On Non-manipulable Causes (2018) (50)
- GODDESS: A Goal-Directed Decision Structuring System (1982) (50)
- On logic and probability (1988) (49)
- Graphical Tools for Linear Structural Equation Modeling (2014) (48)
- A statistical semantics for causation (1992) (48)
- Jeffrey's Rule, Passage of Experience, and Neo-Bayesianism (1990) (48)
- Causal Transportability with Limited Experiments (2013) (47)
- Probabilistic Analysis of the Complexity of A* (1980) (47)
- Detecting Latent Heterogeneity (2013) (47)
- Graphical Models for Recovering Probabilistic and Causal Queries from Missing Data (2014) (46)
- Reasoning with Qualitative Probabilities Can Be Tractable (1992) (46)
- Letter to the Editor: Remarks on the Method of Propensity Score (2009) (46)
- Bayesian decision methods (1990) (45)
- Learning simple causal structures (1993) (44)
- Directed Constraint Networks: A Relational Framework for Causal Modeling (1991) (44)
- Clarifying the Usage of Structural Models for Commonsense Causal Reasoning (2003) (43)
- Regression and Causation: A Critical Examination of Six Econometrics Textbooks (2013) (43)
- Aspects of Graphical Models Connected with Causality (2011) (43)
- Missing Data as a Causal and Probabilistic Problem (2015) (43)
- Structural Counterfactuals: A Brief Introduction (2013) (42)
- Causal Inference Without Counterfactuals: Comment (2000) (42)
- On probability intervals (1988) (41)
- On the Testability of Models with Missing Data (2014) (40)
- Dormant Independence (2008) (40)
- Robustness of Causal Claims (2004) (39)
- Heuristic Search Theory: Survey of Recent Results (1981) (39)
- Logarithmic-Time Updates and Queries in Probabilistic Networks (1995) (38)
- Structural and probabilistic causality. (1996) (37)
- Application of Walsh Transform to Statistical Analysis (1971) (37)
- The algorithmization of counterfactuals (2011) (37)
- A graphical criterion for the identification of causal effects in linear models (2002) (36)
- Reasoning Under Uncertainty (1990) (36)
- Simpson's Paradox: An Anatomy (2011) (36)
- Asymptotic Properties of Discrete Unitary Transforms (1979) (36)
- Causal Discovery from Changes: a Bayesian Approach (2001) (36)
- Artificial Intelligence Techniques (1997) (34)
- Graphical Condition for Identification in recursive SEM (2006) (34)
- Do we need higher-order probabilities, and, if so, what do they mean? (1987) (34)
- Unit Selection Based on Counterfactual Logic (2019) (34)
- The Anatomy of Easy Problems: A Constraint-Satisfaction Formulation (1985) (34)
- Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Structural Causal Models (2019) (33)
- The Solution for the Branching Factor of the Alpha-Beta Pruning Algorithm and its Optimality (1981) (33)
- SCOUT: A Simple Game-Searching Algorithm with Proven Optimal Properties (1980) (32)
- Testable Implications of Linear Structural Equation Models (2014) (31)
- From Adams' conditionals to default expressions, causal conditionals, and counterfactuals (1994) (31)
- Confounding Equivalence in Causal Inference (2010) (31)
- Basis-restricted transformations and performance measures for spectral representations (Corresp.) (1971) (29)
- Transportability from Multiple Environments with Limited Experiments (2013) (29)
- Random geometric graphs: an algorithmic perspective (2006) (28)
- Causes of Effects: Learning individual responses from population data (2021) (28)
- Causality and Counterfactuals in the Situation Calculus (2007) (28)
- The Deductive Approach to Causal Inference (2014) (27)
- An Interactive Program Fo Conversational Elicitation of Decision Structures (1977) (27)
- Local Characterizations of Causal Bayesian Networks (2011) (26)
- Causal and diagnostic inferences: A comparison of validity (1981) (26)
- Efficient Algorithms for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning from Incomplete Data (2014) (25)
- On the Interpretation of do ( x ) (2019) (25)
- An economic basis for certain methods of evaluating probabilistic forecasts (1978) (25)
- The Optimality of A* Revisited (1983) (24)
- Optimal Dyadic Models of Time-Invariant Systems (1975) (24)
- Evidential reasoning under uncertainty (1988) (24)
- Comprehension-Driven Generation of Meta-Technical Utterances in Math Tutoring (1986) (24)
- The structural theory of causation (2011) (24)
- COMMENTS ON NEUBERG'S REVIEW OF CAUSALITY (2003) (24)
- Causal diagrams for empirical researchRejoinder to Discussions of ‘Causal diagrams for empirical research’ (1995) (23)
- Logical and algorithmic properties of independence and their application to Bayesian networks (1990) (23)
- When can association graphs admit a causal interpretation (1994) (23)
- MARKOV AND BAYESIAN NETWORKS: Two Graphical Representations of Probabilistic Knowledge (1988) (21)
- Estimation with Incomplete Data: The Linear Case (2018) (21)
- Causal and Counterfactual Inference (2018) (21)
- Qualitative MDPs and POMDPs: An Order-Of-Magnitude Approximation (2002) (21)
- Nonparametric Bounds on Causal Effects from Partial Compliance Data (2011) (21)
- Reply to commentary by Imai, Keele, Tingley, and Yamamoto concerning causal mediation analysis. (2014) (20)
- Specification and Evaluation of Preferences for Planning under Uncertainty (1994) (20)
- Symbolic Causal Networks for Reasoning about Actions and Plans (1994) (20)
- On the Equivalence of Causal Models (2013) (19)
- The New Challenge: From a Century of Statistics to an Age of Causation (1997) (19)
- AI's greatest trends and controversies (2000) (19)
- Learning bayesian networks from data (1996) (19)
- Waish Processing of Random Signals (1971) (19)
- Incorporating Knowledge into Structural Equation Models Using Auxiliary Variables (2015) (19)
- Decision making under uncertainty (1996) (18)
- Recoverability and Testability of Missing Data: Introduction and Summary of Results (2013) (18)
- Graphical methods for identification in structural equation models (2003) (18)
- Capacity and Error Estimates for Boolean Classifiers with Limited Complexity (1979) (18)
- Rejoinder to comments on "reasoning with belief functions: An analysis of compatibility" (1992) (18)
- On the Definition of Actual Cause (draft Copy { Comments Are Welcome) (1998) (18)
- Distributed diagnosis of systems with multiple faults (1992) (17)
- The Logic of Causal Inference (2010) (17)
- Challenging the hegemony of randomized controlled trials: A commentary on Deaton and Cartwright. (2018) (17)
- Mediating Instrumental Variables (2011) (16)
- Missing Data as a Causal Inference Problem (2013) (16)
- Causal Inference from Big Data: Theoretical Foundations and the Data-fusion Problem (2015) (15)
- BELIEF UPDATING BY NETWORK PROPAGATION (1988) (15)
- A solution to a class of selection-bias problems (2012) (15)
- Graphical models, potential outcomes and causal inference: Comment on Linquist and Sobel (2011) (15)
- Belief propagation: technical perspective (2010) (15)
- Tree Decomposition with Applications to Constraint Processing (1990) (15)
- Statistics and causality: separated to reunite-commentary on Bryan Dowd's "separated at birth". (2011) (15)
- Radical empiricism and machine learning research (2021) (14)
- A Characterization of Interventional Distributions in Semi-Markovian Causal Models (2006) (14)
- The Logic of Counterfactuals in Causal Inference (2000) (14)
- Unit Selection with Causal Diagram (2021) (14)
- Bounds on Causal Effects and Application to High Dimensional Data (2021) (14)
- Note on ‘‘Generalizability of Study Results‘‘ (2019) (13)
- Probabilistic reasoning using graphs (1987) (13)
- On the Logic of Probabilistic Dependencies (1986) (13)
- On the Interpretation of do(x)do(x) (2019) (13)
- Causality: Causal Diagrams and the Identification of Causal Effects (2009) (13)
- Distributed Revision of Belief Commitment in Multi-Hypothesis Interpretations (1986) (13)
- The Curse of Free-Will and the Paradox of Inevitable Regret (2010) (13)
- Causal Inference in Statistics: an Introduction (13)
- Simpson's Paradox, Confounding, and Collapsibility (2009) (13)
- Probabilities of Causation with Nonbinary Treatment and Effect (2022) (12)
- Is Scientific Knowledge Useful for Policy Analysis? A Peculiar Theorem Says: No (2014) (12)
- Theoretical bounds on the complexity of inexact computations (1976) (12)
- Search and Heuristics (1983) (12)
- Causality in the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2010) (12)
- On the Storage Economy of Inferential Question-Answering Systems (1975) (12)
- A Space-Efficient On-Line Method of Computing Quantile Estimates (1981) (12)
- Asymptotic equivalence of spectral representations (1975) (11)
- Reflections on Heckman and Pinto's Causal Analysis After Haavelmo (2013) (11)
- On the residual correlation of finite-dimensional discrete Fourier transforms of stationary signals (Corresp.) (1975) (11)
- The new science of cause and effect, with reflections on data science and artificial intelligence (2019) (11)
- Causality: Introduction to Probabilities, Graphs, and Causal Models (2009) (11)
- Specificity and Inheritance in Default Reasoning (1995) (11)
- Nancy Cartwright on Hunting Causes (2010) (11)
- Some Thoughts Concerning Transfer Learning, with Applications to Meta-Analysis and Data-Sharing Estimation (2012) (11)
- The Mathematics of Causal Relations (2010) (11)
- Physical and Metaphysical Counterfactuals: Evaluating Disjunctive Actions (2017) (10)
- Learning structure from data: a survey (1989) (10)
- Learning Hidden Causes from Empirical Data (1985) (10)
- Unit Selection with Nonbinary Treatment and Effect (2022) (10)
- Exogeneity and Robustness (2015) (9)
- Title Bounds on Treatment Effects from Studies with Imperfect Compliance Permalink (1997) (9)
- Recognition of Handwritten Chinese Characters by Modified Hough Transform Techniques (1989) (9)
- Generalizing experimental results by leveraging knowledge of mechanisms (2020) (9)
- Confounding Equivalence in Observational Studies (2009) (9)
- Complete identification methods for causal inference (2008) (9)
- Comment on Ding and Miratrix: “To Adjust or Not to Adjust?” (2015) (9)
- Bounds on memory versus error trade-offs in question-answering systems (1979) (9)
- Elasticity conditions for storage versus error exchange in question-Answering systems (1979) (8)
- On coding precedence relations with a pair-ordering fidelity criterion (Corresp.) (1976) (8)
- A Maximum Entropy Approach to NOIl notonic (2007) (8)
- Testing regression models with fewer regressors (2011) (8)
- REPLY TO WOODWARD (2003) (8)
- The Art and Science of Cause and Effect (2020) (8)
- Deciding Morality of Graphs is NP-complete (1993) (8)
- Interpretable Conditions for Identifying Direct and Indirect Effects (2012) (8)
- A problem simplification approach that generates heuristics for constraint-satisfaction problems (1988) (8)
- On Two Pseudo-Paradoxes in Bayesian Analysis (2001) (8)
- A new characterization of the experimental implications of causal Bayesian networks (2002) (8)
- Time, frequency, sequency, and their uncertainty relations (Corresp.) (1973) (8)
- An application of rate-distortion theory to pattern recognition and classification (1976) (8)
- Review of N . Cartwright “ Hunting Causes and Using Them ” (2008) (7)
- Comments on: The tale wagged by the DAG. (2018) (7)
- Comment on ‘Causal inference, probability theory, and graphical insights’ by Stuart G. Baker (2013) (7)
- Deciding Consistency of Databases Containing Defeasible and Strict Information (2013) (7)
- Conditioning on Post-treatment Variables (2015) (7)
- The Causal Mediation Formula – A practitioner guide to the assessment of causal pathways (2011) (7)
- On Testing Whether an Embedded Bayesian Network Represents a Probability Model (1994) (7)
- Memory Versus Error Characteristics for Inexact Representations of Linear Orders (1976) (7)
- On the Identification of Nonparametric Structural Models (1997) (7)
- From Imaging and Stochastic Control to a Calculus of Actions (1994) (7)
- Comments on Seeing and Doing (2002) (6)
- The mathematics of causal inference (2011) (6)
- The Utility of Precision in Search Heuristics (1982) (6)
- On the Complexity of Inexact Computations (1975) (6)
- A Causal Calculus for Statistical Research (1995) (6)
- DIRECT EVIDENCE OF STEADY EMF INDUCED BY FLUX MOTION IN SUPERCONDUCTORS (1966) (6)
- On the Identication of Causal Eects (2003) (6)
- Classical causal models cannot faithfully explain Bell nonlocality or Kochen-Specker contextuality in arbitrary scenarios (2019) (6)
- An Interactive Program for Conversational Elecitation of Decision Structures. (1977) (6)
- Storage space versus validity of answers in probabilistic question-answering systems (1980) (6)
- The Seven Pillars of Causal Reasoning with Reflections on Machine Learning (2018) (6)
- Action as a Local Surgery (1995) (6)
- Uncovering Trees in Constraint Networks (1996) (6)
- A new characterization of graphs based on interception relations (1996) (6)
- A Simultaneous Discover-Identify Approach to Causal Inference in Linear Models (2020) (6)
- Probabilities of Causation: Adequate Size of Experimental and Observational Samples (2022) (6)
- Title Identifiability of Path-Specific Effects Permalink (2005) (5)
- An Efficient Method for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning from Incomplete Data (2014) (5)
- The Science and Ethics of Causal Modeling (2010) (5)
- Sufficient Causes: On Oxygen, Matches, and Fires (2019) (5)
- Rejoinder to Discussions of Causal Diagrams for Empirical Research (1995) (5)
- Confounding Equivalence in Observational Studies (or, when are two measurements equally valuable for effect estimation?) (2009) (5)
- A Framework for Processing Value Judgments (1977) (5)
- Physical and Metaphysical Counterfactuals (2010) (5)
- Unit Selection: Case Study and Comparison with A/B Test Heuristic (2022) (4)
- Learning Probabilities of Causation from Finite Population Data (2022) (4)
- Modeling and solving sequential decision problems with uncertainty and partial information (2004) (4)
- Parameter identification: A new perspective (2011) (4)
- On the utility of causal diagrams in modeling attrition: a practical example. (2018) (4)
- Comments on "Application of Walsh Transform to Statistical Analysis" (1972) (4)
- On summarizing data using probabilistic assertions (1977) (4)
- A Calculus of Pragmatic Obligation (2002) (4)
- Causal Diagrams for Empirical Research (With Discussions) (2022) (4)
- Causal Inference with Non-IID Data using Linear Graphical Models (2022) (4)
- Distributedrevision of belief commitment in composite explanations (1986) (3)
- On the Statistical Interpretation of Structural Equations (2011) (3)
- What is Gained from Past Learning (2018) (3)
- Imperfect Experiments: Bounding Effects and Counterfactuals (2009) (3)
- Dynamic Constraint Networks (1994) (3)
- ON THE NATURE OF RESISTANCE IN THE MIXED STATE OF TYPE II SUPERCONDUCTORS (1965) (3)
- Field distribution of plated wire memory elements and its effect on memory characteristics (1968) (3)
- Causality: Epilogue: The Art and Science of Cause and Effect (2009) (3)
- Which is more believable, the probably provable or the provably probable? (1990) (3)
- Direct and Indirect Eeects (2005) (3)
- Is Scientific Knowledge useful for Policy Analysis (2014) (3)
- The Sure-Thing Principle (2016) (3)
- Learning Link-Probabilities in Causal Trees (1986) (3)
- Causality: Causality and Structural Models in Social Science and Economics (2009) (3)
- Missing Data from a Causal Perspective (2015) (3)
- Goal-Directed Decision Structuring Systems. (1981) (3)
- Unit Selection: Learning Benefit Function from Finite Population Data (2022) (3)
- Comments and Controversies: Graphical models, potential outcomes and causal inference: Comment on Lindquist and Sobel (2011) (2)
- Comments on Nozer Singpurwalla's “On Causality and Causal Mechanisms” (2002) (2)
- Statistics, Causality, and Graphs (1999) (2)
- Eight Myths About Causality and Structural Models (2012) (2)
- A short note on the virtues of graphical tools (2014) (2)
- Bounds on Direct Effect in the Presence of Confounded Intermediate Variables - eScholarship (2008) (2)
- Title Bounds on Direct Effect in the Presence of Confounded Intermediate Variables Permalink (2008) (2)
- Structural counterfactuals: A brief introduction - eScholarship (2013) (2)
- Bayesian Networks - eScholarship (2011) (2)
- Discussion on “Surrogate Measures and Consistent Surrogates” (2013) (2)
- A Note on Testing Exogeneity of Instrumental Variables (2011) (2)
- Probabilities of Causation: Role of Observational Data (2022) (2)
- Probabilistic foundations of reasoning with conditionals (1997) (2)
- Mind over data (2018) (2)
- Character Recognition: the Reading of Text by Computer (2)
- Progress Toward a Goal-Directed Decision Support System. (1979) (2)
- Causal Thinking in the Twilight Zone (2015) (2)
- NON-BAYESIAN FORMALISMS FOR MANAGING UNCERTAINTY (1988) (2)
- Parameter Identiication: a New Perspective (second Draft) (2001) (2)
- Optimum Synthesis of Inductorless Bandpass Filters Using a Combination of Identical RC Coupled Amplifiers (1964) (1)
- Asymptotic rate-distortion functions for coding precedence relations (Corresp.) (1979) (1)
- Chapter 5 – DISTRIBUTED REVISION OF COMPOSITE BELIEFS (1988) (1)
- Dynamic Networks Techniques for Autonomous Planning and Control. Probabilistic Counterfactuals. (1997) (1)
- A Note on Causes of Effects (2014) (1)
- A simple criterion for controlling selection bias (2013) (1)
- GRAPHOIDS: AN AXIOMATIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS (1992) (1)
- Human and Machine Intelligence (2012) (1)
- Graphoids over Counterfactuals (2014) (1)
- Bias and Causation, Models and Judgment for Valid Comparisons by WEISBERG, H. I. (2012) (1)
- The Mathematics of Causal Inference in Statistics (2007) (1)
- TAXONOMIC HIERARCHIES, CONTINUOUS VARIABLES, AND UNCERTAIN PROBABILITIES (1988) (1)
- Erratum to Is Scientific Knowledge Useful for Policy Analysis? A Peculiar Theorem Says: No [J Causal Inference DOI: 10.1515/jci-2014-0017] (2014) (1)
- On the Consistency Rule in Causal Inference: An Axiom, Definition, Assumption, or a Theorem? - eScholarship (2010) (1)
- Book Reviews (1995) (1)
- Exploiting Equality Constraints in Causal Inference (2021) (1)
- A Linear “Microscope” for Interventions and Counterfactuals (2017) (1)
- Causality: The Logic of Structure-Based Counterfactuals (2009) (1)
- LEARNING STRUCTURE FROM DATA (1988) (1)
- ϵ -Identifiability of Causal Quantities (2023) (1)
- Random Bayesian networks with bounded indegree (2014) (1)
- On The Storage Economy Of Error-Tolerating Question-Answering Systems (1975) (1)
- Causality: Reflections, Elaborations, and Discussions with Readers (2009) (1)
- Causality: Actions, Plans, and Direct Effects (2009) (1)
- Controlling Selection Bias in Causal Inference ( Supplementary Material ) (2012) (1)
- The Mechanization of Causal Inference: A “mini” Turing Test and Beyond (2007) (1)
- Consistent Estimation given Missing Data (2018) (0)
- Technical Perspective Belief Propagation (2010) (0)
- Application of Walsh Transformto (1971) (0)
- Storage Versus Performance Exchange in Probabilistic Question-Answering Systems (1980) (0)
- The effect of velocity on the electrical conductivity of blood (1961) (0)
- Universal Formulas for Treatment Effects from Noncompliance Data (1996) (0)
- Response to review by Kyburg (2005) (0)
- A New Characterization of Graphs Based on Interpretation Relations (1993) (0)
- 5 Selected Annotated Bibliography by Judea Pearl Search and Heuristics 1 (2022) (0)
- A causal calculus for statistical research, with applications to observational and experimental studies (2021) (0)
- Identification by Edge Contraction in Linear Structural Equation Models (2015) (0)
- DECISION AND CONTROL (1988) (0)
- Simpson's Paradox: an Anatomy 1 a Tale of a Non-paradox (1999) (0)
- [eBooks] Causality Models Reasoning And Inference (2021) (0)
- Three Statistical Puzzles (2011) (0)
- Electromagnetic Behavior of Thin‐Film Structures (1966) (0)
- Causality: A Theory of Inferred Causation (2009) (0)
- Book Reviews (2014) (0)
- In Defense of Unification (Comments on West and Koch's review of Causality) (2014) (0)
- Epsilon-Identifiability of Causal Quantities (2023) (0)
- 2 SEM and Causality : A Brief History of Unhappy Encounters (0)
- GRAPHICAL TOOLS FOR LINEAR PATH MODELS (2016) (0)
- Causal, Casual, and Curious (2013-2020): A collage in the art of causal reasoning (2020) (0)
- Title On the Identification of Nonparametric Structural Models Permalink (1997) (0)
- Comment (2000) (0)
- Comments on \Surrogates measures and consistent surrogates" (2013) (0)
- On the Value of Synthetic Judgments. Revision. (1980) (0)
- Empirical Semantics for Defeasible Databases (1992) (0)
- Generalizing causal knowledge: theory and algorithms (2014) (0)
- Title Causal Transportability with Limited Experiments Permalink (2013) (0)
- Meta-Transportability of Causal Eects: A Formal Approach - eScholarship (2013) (0)
- Causal Inference: History, Perspectives, Adventures, and Unification (An Interview with Judea Pearl) (2022) (0)
- Reasoning with Cause and Effect 2 Structural Model Semantics Deenition 2.1 (causal Model) a Causal Model Is a Triple (1999) (0)
- 2 An oracle for policies or an aid to forecasters ? (2014) (0)
- On the Statistical Interpretation of Structural Equations - eScholarship (2011) (0)
- Causes of Eects and Eects of Causes (2014) (0)
- On Quantifying Bias in Causal Effects When Data Are Non-IID (2023) (0)
- Causality: Probability of Causation: Interpretation and Identification (2009) (0)
- Effectiveness of Orthogonal Transforms in Information Processing Applications. (1973) (0)
- Lord ’ s Paradox Revisited – ( Oh Lord ! Kumbaya ! ) Judea Pearl (2016) (0)
- UNCERTAINTY IN AI SYSTEMS (1988) (0)
- 2 . 1 Assessing covariate-induced heterogeneity (2015) (0)
- Dynamic Network Techniques for Autonomous Planning and Control (2000) (0)
- The Mathematics of Causal Relations Judea Pearl (0)
- Peer Reviewed Title: Graphical Condition for Identification in Recursive SEM (2006) (0)
- The algorithmization of counterfactuals ( or , what if Oswald were a robot ? ) (2011) (0)
- A note on the pairwise Markov condition in directed Markov fields (2012) (0)
- A Maximum Entropy Approach to NOIl notonic Mois (1999) (0)
- Book reviews (2019) (0)
- Advanced technology Vortexes are creating a stir in the superconductor field (0)
- 1 Introduction-Physical and Metaphysical Conceptions of Actions (2010) (0)
- Causal reasoning with continuous uncertain quantities (1988) (0)
- Causal , Casual and Curious (2013) (0)
- Comments on `Surrogate measures and consistent surrogates' (by Tyler VanderWeele) (2013) (0)
- The Causal Foundations of Structural Equation Modeling - eScholarship (2011) (0)
- The Foundations of Causal Inference : A Review ∗ (2010) (0)
- NON-NUMERICAL APPROACHES TO PLAUSIBLE INFERENCE INTRODUCTION (2002) (0)
- AND ITS REPRESENTATIONS * (0)
- Asymptotic Complexity of Game-Searching Procedures (1980) (0)
- A Causal Calculus for Statistical Research 3.1 Introduction (1996) (0)
- UCLA UCLA Title : Causal inference in statistics : An overview (0)
- A Framework forProcessingValue Judgments (1977) (0)
- Distributed Inferencing for Classification (1991) (0)
- On the complexity of deriving imprecise assertions (1976) (0)
- Direct and Indirect Eeects (first Draft, Comments Welcome) (2001) (0)
- Axiom, Definition, Assumption, or Theorem? (2010) (0)
- Lord ’ s Paradox Revisited – ( (2014) (0)
- Identification of Conditional Interventional Distributions - eScholarship (2006) (0)
- On Counterfactuals and Cognitive Science: Rumlhart Prize Symposium in Honor of Judea Pearl (2011) (0)
- 3 Interpretable Conditions 3 . 1 Preliminary Notation and Nomenclature (0)
- Causality: Preface to the First Edition (2009) (0)
- BOOK REVIEW A Structural Approach to the Understanding of Causes, Effects, and Judgment (2002) (0)
- Exogeneity and Superexogeneity: A No-tear Perspective (2011) (0)
- Title The mathematics of causal inference Permalink (2013) (0)
- Theoretical Impediments to Machine Learning A position paper (2016) (0)
- of Causal Eects: A Formal Approach (2013) (0)
- Dynamic Constraints Networks (1989) (0)
- Flowers of the First Law (2015) (0)
- If Oswald Hadn't Used Counterfactuals, My Robot Would Have (2010) (0)
- ESSAY : Probability in Artificial Intelligence (0)
- Complete Identification Methods for the Causal Hierarchy - eScholarship (2008) (0)
- The mathematics of causal inference - eScholarship (2013) (0)
- ON NEUBERG ’ S REVIEW OF CAUSALITY (0)
- A Causal Calculus (draft Copy) (0)
- Causal , Casual and Curious Judea Pearl * Generalizing Experimental Findings (2015) (0)
- Title Comment on ` Causal inference , probability theory , and graphical insights ' (2013) (0)
- Invited Commentary: Unders tanding Bias Amplification (2011) (0)
- LOGIC AND PROBABILITY: THE STRANGE CONNECTION (1988) (0)
- Structural causal models: a formalism for reasoning about actions and counterfactuals (1997) (0)
- Preface to the ACM TIST Special Issue on Causal Discovery and Inference (2016) (0)
- 13 When Would x Tell You GRAPHOIDS : Graph-Based Logic for Reasoning about Relevance Relations * Or More about y If You Already Know z ? (2022) (0)
- A Short Rejoinder to Rejoinder (2002) (0)
- GRAPHS , CAUSALITY (1998) (0)
- Judea Pearl * The Deductive Approach to Causal Inference (2014) (0)
- 4. Summary: Where Is Econometric Modelling Today? (2008) (0)
- The Mathematics of Causal Relations Judea Pearl Cognitive Systems Laboratory Computer Science (2010) (0)
- Discussing and Displaying the Effectiveness of Causal Models for Observational Studies (2003) (0)
- Causality: The Actual Cause (2009) (0)
- Title Graphical models for inference with missing data Permalink (2013) (0)
- Causation and decision: On Dawid’s “Decision theoretic foundation of statistical causality” (2022) (0)
- Non-parametric Identification of Causal Effects, or Structural Modeling without Equations (1995) (0)
- Artificial Intelligence Axioms of causal relevance (2003) (0)
- On the Identification of Nonparametric Structural Models - eScholarship (2011) (0)
- The effect of crossed fields on the velocity distribution of hollow electron beams (1964) (0)
- Identification by Auxiliary Instrumental Sets in Linear Structural Equation Models (2015) (0)
- On the Foundation of Structural Equation Models or When Can We Give Causal Interpretation to Structural Coeecients? 1 Identiiability and Causal Authenticity (0)
- Reasoning with cause and effect - eScholarship (2011) (0)
- Comment on: Oldford, R.W., "A Physical Device for Demonstrating Confounding Blocking, and the Role of Randomization in Uncovering a Causal Relationship." (2011) (0)

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## What Are Judea Pearl's Academic Contributions?

Judea Pearl is most known for their academic work in the field of computer science. They are also known for their academic work in the fields of

Judea Pearl has made the following academic contributions: