#220

Most Influential Person

English mathematical physicist, recreational mathematician and philosopher

Sir Roger Penrose was born in Colchester, England in 1931. He is best known for his significant contributions to the mathematical physics of general relativity and cosmology. Penrose attended University College London where he earned his bachelor’s in mathematics. He received a PhD studying algebraic geometry at St John’s College, Cambridge in 1958. In his free time at Cambridge, he attended a few lectures led by Hermann Bondi and Paul Dirac, which lent some of his curiosity in the direction of physics. Penrose went on to become an innovator in the field of mathematical physics, and is now widely regarded as among the greatest living mathematical physicists.

In public life, he speaks frequently on topics of philosophy, addressing questions such as, why can the universe be explained coherently by mathematics? Famously, he has also written extensively on theories of the nature of consciousness, a topic typically broached in the discipline of academic philosophy (and related fields, such as cognitive science). In his 1989 book The Emperor’s New Mind, Penrose argued that consciousness arises from quantum effects in the brain, a view that both fascinated and drew criticism from other theorists about the mind. His follow-up book Shadows of the Mind in 1994 further explored his ideas about consciousness.

Roger Penrose is the recipient of numerous honors and awards for his distinguished career in mathematical physics. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1972. In 1988 he won the Wolf Prize for Physics, sharing the award with the late Stephen Hawking“>Stephen Hawking for work on black holes. In 1989 he was awarded the Dirac Medal and Prize of the British Institute of Physics, and in 1990 Penrose was awarded the Albert Einstein Medal. In 2000 he was appointed to the Order of Merit by the British Government.

**Featured in Top Influential Physicists Today and Top Influential Mathematicians Today**

According to Wikipedia, Sir Roger Penrose is a British mathematician, mathematical physicist, philosopher of science and Nobel Laureate in Physics. He is Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford, an emeritus fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, and an honorary fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and University College London.

- A Generalized inverse for matrices (2721)
- The Emperor's New Mind (1960)
- Spinors And Space-Time (1940)
- An Approach to Gravitational Radiation by a Method of Spin Coefficients (1780)
- Shadows of the Mind (1373)
- Gravitational collapse and spacetime singularities (1193)
- The singularities of gravitational collapse and cosmology (1163)
- On Gravity's role in Quantum State Reduction (988)
- The road to reality. (809)
- Physics, Mathematics, and Minds. (Book Reviews: The Emperor's New Mind. Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics.) (684)
- Zero rest-mass fields including gravitation: asymptotic behaviour (661)
- On best approximate solutions of linear matrix equations (600)
- Gravitational Collapse : The Role of General Relativity 1 (556)
- Nonlinear gravitons and curved twistor theory (550)
- Spinors and Space–Time: Subject and author index (547)
- The emperor's new mind - concerning computers, minds and the laws of physics (543)
- Note on the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs Group (539)
- Singularities and time-asymmetry. (484)
- A spinor approach to general relativity (480)
- Techniques of Differential Topology in Relativity (478)
- Twistor theory: An approach to the quantisation of fields and space-time (475)
- Conscious Events as Orchestrated Space-Time Selections (470)
- Asymptotic properties of fields and space-times (469)
- Spinor and twistor methods in space-time geometry (424)
- Shadows of the mind - a search for the missing science of consciousness (424)
- Quantum Concepts in Space and Time (422)
- On quadratic first integrals of the geodesic equations for type {22} spacetimes (396)
- Consciousness in the universe: a review of the 'Orch OR' theory. (396)
- “Golden Oldie”: Gravitational Collapse: The Role of General Relativity (385)
- Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: a model for consciousness (374)
- The Large, the Small and the Human Mind (354)
- A space‐time calculus based on pairs of null directions (347)
- Pentaplexity A Class of Non-Periodic Tilings of the Plane (320)
- Angular Momentum: an Approach to Combinatorial Space-Time (314)
- Quantum computation, entanglement and state reduction (310)
- A theory of everything? (304)
- Any Space-Time has a Plane Wave as a Limit (298)
- A complete guide to the laws of the universe (297)
- Two-spinor calculus and relativistic fields (296)
- Spinors and Space‐Time, Volume I: Two‐Spinor Calculus and Relativistic Fields (275)
- STRUCTURE OF SPACE--TIME. (275)
- Quasi-local mass and angular momentum in general relativity (274)
- THE NATURE OF SPACE AND TIME (270)
- Spherically symmetric solutions of the Schrodinger-Newton equations (254)
- CBMS-NSF REGIONAL CONFERENCE SERIES IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS (252)
- Extraction of Rotational Energy from a Black Hole (250)
- Book-Review - Spinors and Spacetime - VOL.2 - Spinor and Twistor Methods in Spacetime Geometry (238)
- Scattering of Two Impulsive Gravitational Plane Waves (235)
- Orchestrated reduction of quantum coherence in brain microtubules: A model for consciousness (228)
- Ideal points in space-time (215)
- New conservation laws for zero rest-mass fields in asymptotically flat space-time (215)
- On the structure of causal spaces (202)
- A Remarkable Property of Plane Waves in General Relativity (201)
- The twistor programme (198)
- The Apparent shape of a relativistically moving sphere (191)
- Twistor quantisation and curved space-time (190)
- Cohomology and massless fields (183)
- Cycles of time : an extraordinary new view of the universe (181)
- Quantum gravity 2 : a second Oxford symposium (180)
- Consciousness In The Universe (169)
- The question of cosmic censorship (167)
- Quantum Gravity 2 (145)
- Internal instability in a Reissner-Nordström black hole (142)
- Quantum gravity : an Oxford symposium (141)
- Consciousness in the Universe: Neuroscience, Quantum Space-Time Geometry and Orch OR Theory (122)
- On the Gravitization of Quantum Mechanics 1: Quantum State Reduction (121)
- Difficulties with Inflationary Cosmology a (116)
- Solutions of the Zero-Rest-Mass Equations (115)
- Cycles of Time (110)
- Twistor theory - Its aims and achievements (105)
- The Nature of Space and Time (102)
- On a quadratic first integral for the charged particle orbits in the charged Kerr solution (92)
- What 'gaps'? Reply to Grush and Churchland (92)
- Republication of: Conformal treatment of infinity (87)
- On bell non-locality without probabilities: More curious geometry (87)
- Reply to seven commentaries on “Consciousness in the universe: Review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory” (86)
- The metric and curvature properties of H-space (84)
- Concentric circles in WMAP data may provide evidence of violent pre-Big-Bang activity (83)
- BEFORE THE BIG BANG: AN OUTRAGEOUS NEW PERSPECTIVE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR PARTICLE PHYSICS (78)
- Golden Oldie: Null Hypersurface Initial Data for Classical Fields of Arbitrary Spin and for General Relativity (75)
- 10 EXACT GRAVITATIONALLY-CONSERVED QUANTITIES (74)
- Mr. Tompkins in paperback (73)
- The nonlinear graviton (70)
- The Central programme of twistor theory (69)
- Conserved Quantities in the Einstein‐Maxwell Theory (69)
- A test of general relativity using the LARES and LAGEOS satellites and a GRACE Earth gravity model (68)
- Gravity and state vector reduction. (65)
- WAVEFUNCTION COLLAPSE AS A REAL GRAVITATIONAL EFFECT (63)
- Testing General Relativity and gravitational physics using the LARES satellite (61)
- How Long Until Human-Level AI ? Results from an Expert Assessment (61)
- SOME UNSOLVED PROBLEMS IN CLASSICAL GENERAL RELATIVITY (60)
- Orchestrated Objective Reduction of Quantum Coherence in Brain Microtubules: The "Orch OR" Model for Consciousness (59)
- Spinors and torsion in general relativity (56)
- Beyond the Doubting of a Shadow A Reply to Commentaries on Shadows of the Mind (54)
- On the Nature of Quantum Geometry (53)
- Fashion, Faith, and Fantasy in the New Physics of the Universe (52)
- Relativistic Symmetry Groups (50)
- Newton, quantum theory and reality. (49)
- Time-Asymmetry and Quantum Gravity (49)
- IMBEDDING OF MANIFOLDS IN EUCLIDEAN SPACE (47)
- On CCC-predicted concentric low-variance circles in the CMB sky (46)
- The topology of ridge systems (44)
- Physical space-time and nonrealizable ${\text{CR}}$-structures (37)
- Tilings and Quasi-Crystals; a Non-Local Growth Problem? (36)
- Spinors and Space–Time: Summary of Volume 1 (35)
- Fundamental Physics and General Relativity with the LARES and LAGEOS satellites (34)
- Consciousness, the Brain, and Spacetime Geometry: An Addendum (33)
- Singularities of spacetime (32)
- GENERAL-RELATIVISTIC ENERGY FLUX AND ELEMENTARY OPTICS. (31)
- Spin-coefficient formalism (31)
- A Note on inverse semigroups (31)
- Exploring the unification of quantum theory and general relativity with a Bose-Einstein condensate (29)
- Black holes, quantum theory and cosmology (29)
- Spinors and Space-Time: Appendix: diagrammatic notation (27)
- Energy Conservation as the Basis of Relativistic Mechanics. II (27)
- The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws ofPhysics (27)
- Spinors and Space–Time: spinors in n dimensions (25)
- Twistors as Spin 3/2 Charges (25)
- The Kahler Structure of Asymptotic Twistor Space (25)
- THE LIGHT-CONE AT INFINITY, (24)
- Gravity and quantum mechanics (24)
- The basic ideas of conformal cyclic cosmology (23)
- Black Holes and Gravitational Theory (23)
- Remarks on Tiling: Details of a (1 + ε + ε2)-Aperiodic Set (23)
- 1 – On Schwarzschild Causality—A Problem for “Lorentz Covariant” General Relativity (21)
- On the Cohomology of Impossible Figures (21)
- Chandrasekhar, black holes, and singularities (19)
- Reply to criticism of the ‘Orch OR qubit’ – ‘Orchestrated objective reduction’ is scientifically justified (19)
- What happened before the Big Bang (19)
- Drawing with complex numbers (18)
- The Geometry of the Universe (18)
- The nonalgorithmic mind (17)
- Causality, quantum theory and cosmology (17)
- On the Gravitization of Quantum Mechanics 2: Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (17)
- CCC-predicted low-variance circles in CMB sky and LCDM (17)
- Preliminary orbital analysis of the LARES space experiment (16)
- Spinors and Space–Time: Classification of curvature tensors (16)
- Twistor theory and the Einstein vacuum (15)
- Singularities in Cosmology (14)
- What is reality (14)
- Spinors and Space–Time: Twistors (13)
- A twistor conformal field theory for four space-time dimensions (13)
- On the second law of thermodynamics (13)
- Palatial twistor theory and the twistor googly problem (13)
- More on the low variance circles in CMB sky (13)
- On cosmological mass with positive Λ (12)
- The emperor's new mind : concerning computers, minds, and thelaws of physics (12)
- A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy: I. An introduction to the LARES2 space experiment (12)
- Twistor geometry of light rays (11)
- Consciousness in the universe an updated review of the "Orch OR" theory (11)
- On understanding understanding (11)
- On Space and Time: Causality, quantum theory and cosmology (11)
- Apparent evidence for Hawking points in the CMB Sky (11)
- The Big Bang and its Dark-Matter Content: Whence, Whither, and Wherefore (10)
- On the instability of extra space dimensions (10)
- An improved test of the general relativistic effect of frame-dragging using the LARES and LAGEOS satellites (10)
- CCC and the Fermi paradox (9)
- The Emperor's New Mind revisited (9)
- A quadratic mapping with invariant cubic curve (9)
- Uncertainty in quantum mechanics: faith or fantasy? (9)
- The problem of spacetime singularities: implications for quantum gravity? (9)
- A new laser-ranged satellite for General Relativity and space geodesy: III. De Sitter effect and the LARES 2 space experiment (9)
- Awareness and Understanding in Computer Programs: A Review of Shadows of the Mind by Roger Penrose (8)
- Physics meets philosophy at the Planck scale: On gravity's role in quantum state reduction (8)
- Twistors and General Relativity (8)
- What is Life? The Next Fifty Years: Why new physics is needed to understand the mind (7)
- Quasi Local Mass and Angular Momentum (7)
- On the physics and mathematics of thought (7)
- The mathematics of the electron's spin (7)
- GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION: AN EXPERIMENTALLY TESTABLE PROPOSAL (7)
- Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Gödel, the Mind, and the Laws of Physics (6)
- Book-Review - Spinors and Space-Time - VOL.1 (6)
- Correlated "noise" in LIGO gravitational wave signals: an implication of Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (6)
- Twistors and particles: an outline (6)
- A brief introduction to twistors (5)
- Twistors in Mathematics and Physics: Twistor Theory After 25 Years—its Physical Status and Prospects (5)
- Twisting round space-time. (5)
- On the quadratic invariant of binary sextics (5)
- Where physics meets metaphysics (5)
- What is Life?: ORDER, DISORDER AND ENTROPY (5)
- Twistors and the Einstein equations (5)
- Reply to “A comment on “A test of general relativity using the LARES and LAGEOS satellites and a GRACE Earth gravity model, by I. Ciufolini et al.”” (5)
- Book-Review - the Very Early Universe (4)
- 5. Twistor Geometry of Conformal Infinity (4)
- John Bell, State Reduction, and Quanglement (4)
- Relation between wave speeds in the crust of dense magnetic stars (4)
- Discussion of Shadows of the Mind (4)
- Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism: References (4)
- Quantum concepts in space and time. Proceedings of the Third Oxford Symposium on Quantum Gravity, held at Oxford, UK, March 1984 (4)
- Foreword: A Computable Universe, Understanding Computation and Exploring Nature As Computation (4)
- Time-Asymmetry, Cosmological Uniformity and Space-Time Singularities (3)
- Quantum state reduction via gravity, and possible tests using Bose–Einstein condensates (3)
- Einstein's Vision and the Mathematics of the Natural World (3)
- Conserved Quantities and Conformal Structure in General Relativity (3)
- Roger Penrose : Collected works (3)
- Cosmology of Consciousness: Quantum Physics & Neuroscience of Mind (3)
- An emperor still without mind (3)
- The Renaissance of General Relativity and Cosmology: Quantum non-locality and complex reality (3)
- Reminiscences of Christopher Strachey (3)
- Limits of Artificial Intelligence@@@The Emperor's New Mind (3)
- THE ARITHMETICAL PARADOX: THE ONENESS OF MIND (3)
- A Brief Outline of Twistor Theory (3)
- Lecture in Honour of Leopold Infeld (Extended Outline only) Spinors in General Relativity (3)
- IS LIFE BASED ON THE LAWS OF PHYSICS (3)
- Quantum Physics of Consciousness (3)
- The twistor approach to space-time structures (3)
- Twistor Theory as an Approach to Fundamental Physics (3)
- COLLIDING PLANE WAVES IN GENERAL RELATIVITY (2)
- Algorithms and Turing Machines (2)
- On Space and Time: Preface (2)
- Mass and angular momentum at the quasi-local level in general relativity (2)
- Energy and Its Definition in General Relativity (2)
- LARES satellite thermal forces and a test of general relativity (2)
- Strings with a twist (2)
- Is Conscious Awareness Consistent with Space-Time Descriptions? (2)
- Geodesic Motion in General Relativity:. Lares in Earth's Gravity (2)
- Spinors and Space-Time: Spinors and world-tensors (2)
- NAKED SINGULARITIES (2)
- Foundations of Space and Time: The Big Bang, quantum gravity and black-hole information loss (2)
- THE PRINCIPLE OF OBJEGTIVATION (2)
- Spinors and Space-Time: The geometry of world-vectors and spin-vectors (2)
- The role of gravity in quantum state reduction (2)
- Extended Regge trajectories (1)
- The Need for a Non-computational Extension of Quantum Action in the Brain (1)
- On Space and Time edited by Shahn Majid (1)
- Singularities and time's arrow (1)
- EPILOGUE. ON DETERMINISM AND FREE WILL (1)
- Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism: Foreword (1)
- Directions in General Relativity: An Example of Indeterminacy in the Time-Development of “Already Unified Field Theory”: A Collision between Electomagnetic Plane Waves (1)
- Dragging of Inertial Frames, Fundamental Physics and Satellite Laser Ranging (1)
- What is Life?: THE PRINCIPLE OF OBJECTIVATION (1)
- THE MYSTERY OF THE SENSUAL QUALITIES (1)
- Spinors and Space-Time: Fields in space-time (1)
- Twistor Theory: A Geometric Perspective for Describing the Physical World (1)
- General Theory of Relativity (1)
- Singularities and big-bang cosmology (1)
- Reason destroys itself (1)
- Introduction: science at the turn of the millennium (1)
- What is Life?: THE ARITHMETICAL PARADOX: THE ONENESS OF MIND (1)
- Quantum Gravity. Oxford Symposium, Chilton, February 15-16, 1974 (1)
- Recent advances in global general relativity: A brief survey (1)
- Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2020 (1)
- Mathematical Physics in the 20th and 21st Centuries? (1)
- Numerical relativity by power series (1)
- On gravitational collapse (1)
- Polarization of waves (1)
- Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism: The Ionian Enlightenment (1)
- Spacetime Topology, Causal Structure and Singularities (1)
- Some Remarks on Twistor Theory (1)
- Mathematics of the Universe (1)
- On the Cohomology of Imposible Figure (1)
- The nature of time (1)
- 4. A New Physics for the Universe (0)
- Aspects of General Relativity (0)
- Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism: The intricacy of the continuum (0)
- The makeshift of wave mechanics (0)
- General introduction (0)
- Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism: The Atomists (0)
- 1 8 Ja n 20 00 Drawing with Complex Numbers (0)
- THE BIGGEST ENIGMA (0)
- Mr Tompkins in Paperback: The Pulsating Universe (0)
- On the road with Roger Penrose (0)
- CHAPTER FOUR. Quantum Theory and Spacetime (0)
- EXTRACT 10 – A Spinor Approach to General Relativity† (0)
- 4. Global Causality Conditions (0)
- Q.E.D (0)
- Stephen William Hawking: A Biographical Memoir (0)
- On Attempting to Model the Mathematical Mind (0)
- Response time (0)
- Time, space and complex geometry (0)
- SCIENCE AND RELIGION (0)
- Title: the Emperor'snew Mind concerning Computers, Minds and the Laws of Physics (0)
- THE HEREDITARY MECHANISM (0)
- Mr Tompkins in Paperback: Maxwell's Demon (0)
- What are the special features (0)
- Would physical indeterminacy give free will a chance (0)
- Towards an Objective Physics of Bell Nonlocality: Palatial Twistor Theory (0)
- Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism: The bar to prediction, according to Niels Bohr (0)
- A Part of the Previous Lecture which Mr Tompkins slept through (0)
- Appendix A. Mathematical Appendix (0)
- Antony Gormley: Aperture (0)
- In {2 2} vacuums, the null-datum on null rays is exactlyr−5 (0)
- Mr Tompkins in Paperback: Foreword (0)
- Spinors and Space–Time: Conformal infinity (0)
- Gluing Noncommutative Twistor Spaces (0)
- General Relativity: Overview (0)
- Spinors and Space–Time: Preface (0)
- Gluing Non-commutative Twistor Spaces (0)
- Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism: The spiritual bearing of science on life (0)
- Twistor Theory, Then and Now (0)
- Quantum models of space-time based on recoupling theory (0)
- Science and the Mind (0)
- On the Nature of Mathematical Judgement Reply to Penrose (0)
- Stephen William Hawking CH CBE. 8 January 1942—14 March 2018 (0)
- CHAPTER Two. Structure of Spacetime Singularities (0)
- Form, not substance, the fundamental concept (0)
- The practical achievements of science tending to obliterate its true import (0)
- Before the Big Bang? A Novel Resolution of a Profound Cosmological Puzzle (0)
- CHAPTER SEVEN. The Debate (0)
- The Professor's Lecture on Curved Space, Gravity and the universe (0)
- Quantum Mechanics: Foundations (0)
- Mr Tompkins Tastes a Japanese Meal (0)
- Continuous description and causality (0)
- Feeling for Form in Physics (0)
- Conquering Complexity (0)
- Aeons Before the Big Bang (0)
- The emperor’s new mind: concerning computers, minds, and the laws of physics , by Roger Penrose. Pp 466. £20. 1989. ISBN 0-19-851973-7 (Oxford University Press) (0)
- Mr Tompkins in Paperback: The Woodcarver (0)
- The dark Universe (0)
- On Ricci-flat twistor theory (0)
- Book-Review - Spinors and Spacetime (0)
- Some developments in twistors and space-time (0)
- A radical change in our ideas of matter (0)
- Nature and the Greeks and Science and Humanism: Atoms or quanta–the counter-spell of old standing, to escape the intricacy of the continuum (0)
- Book-Review - Quantum Concepts in Space and Time (0)
- Open Discussion: E. Amaldi, Chairman (0)
- The Universe in a Single Atom , the Dalai Lama (0)
- Comments on 'Penrose and mathematical ability' (0)
- Spinors and Space-Time: Abstract indices and spinor algebra (0)
- Filling the plane (0)
- Spinors and Space-Time: Differentiation and curvature (0)
- The religion of Xenophanes. Heraclitus of Ephesus (0)
- The Nature of Space and Time Two relativists present their distinctive views on the universe , its evolution and the impact of quantum theory (0)
- THE QUANTUM-MECHANICAL EVIDENCE (0)
- The Pulsating Universe (0)
- 6. The Space of Causal Curves (0)
- What is Life?: ON DETERMINISM AND FREE WILL (0)
- 5. Domains of Dependence (0)
- CHAPTER SIX. The Twistor View of Spacetime (0)
- 3. Properties of Pasts and Futures (0)
- Mathematics and Reality (0)
- Mr Tompkins in Paperback: The Gay Tribe of Electrons (0)
- Global General Relativity (0)
- The Stuff of ConsciousnessMind, Brain and the Quantum.The Emperor's New Mind (0)
- Gödel, relativity, and mind (0)
- AFTERWORD TO THE 2010 EDITION. The Debate Continues (0)
- 7. Geodesics as Maximal Curves (0)
- Aperiodic Order: Foreword (0)
- 8. Singularity Theorems (0)
- Reason 6: Reason eats itself (0)
- Penrose-Hameroff Quantum Tubulin Electrons , Chiao Gravity Antennas , and Mead Resonance (0)
- What is Life?: THE FUTURE OF UNDERSTANDING (0)
- Chandrasekhar on black holes (0)
- Book-Review - Quantum Gravity 2 (0)
- Singularities and Bing-Bang cosmology (0)
- Afterword: The Mathematics of William Kingdon Clifford: A Personal Relection (0)
- Chandrasekhar and the End of Time (0)
- The nature of our “models” (0)
- 2. Causality and Chronology (0)
- The alleged break-down of the barrier between subject and object (0)
- Mr Tompkins in Paperback: Holes in Nothing (0)

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Roger Penrose is most known for their academic work in the field of physics. They are also known for their academic work in the fields of mathematics, philosophy, psychology, and literature.

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