Top Influential Biologists Today
Biologists also help us to better understand how human activities impact the natural world, how the evolution of species occurs, and how our own bodies work. The biologists on this list have made groundbreaking discoveries in their respective fields of study, saving lives, preventing disease outbreaks, and improving our management of fisheries and other natural resources.
Biology. Taken from the Greek words “bios” and “logos”, biology is the study (logos) of life (bios). A biologist is someone who studies life. Life takes many forms, from the largest animal on earth, the blue whale, to the tiniest single-cell organisms.
Because the field of biology covers all of life on Earth, it has a number of different branches that study varying areas of biology. These branches include anatomy, biochemistry, biophysics, biotechnology, botany, cell biology, ecology, evolution, genetics, immunology, marine biology, microbiology, molecular biology, mycology, parasitology, photobiology, phycology, physiology, plant physiology, radiobiology, structural biology, theoretical biology, virology, and zoology. Each of these disciplines contributes to our understanding of every living organism that shares this beautiful planet with us.
Biologists also help us to better understand how human activities impact the natural world, how the evolution of species occurs, and how our own bodies work. Biologists work closely with doctors to investigate new treatment methodologies and develop new vaccines and diagnostic tests.
Some biologists are also working to take biology to the future, investigating gene therapies and modifications to eradicate disease, improve immune response, or integrate humans more fully with technology.
The biologists on this list have made groundbreaking discoveries in their respective fields of study, saving lives, preventing disease outbreaks, and improving our management of fisheries and other natural resources.
In what follows, we look at influential biologists over the last decade. Based on our ranking methodology, these individuals have significantly impacted the academic discipline of biology within 2010-2020. Influence can be produced in a variety of ways. Some have had revolutionary ideas, some may have climbed by popularity, but all are academicians primarily working in biology. Read more about our methodology.
Top Influential Biologists 2010-2020
Of All Time | Last 50 Years | Last 20 Years
1. Richard Dawkins
New College, Oxford
Emeritus Fellow and Professor
Urban and Media Anthropology
Richard Dawkins is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford and former University of Oxford’s Professor for Public Understanding of Science, but he is best known for his work in evolutionary biology. He studied zoology at Balliol College, Oxford, earning a bachelor’s degree, M.A., and Ph.D.
Dawkins is a pioneer in the role of genes in evolution. His most well-known book, The Selfish Gene, is an examination of how genetics drive evolutionary change. He also coined the term “meme” in this book, to describe the behavioral equivalent of a gene. A meme, he felt, reflected a cultural touchpoint that, once assumed in popular culture, continued to evolve and change as it passed from one person to another.
In 2006, he published The God Delusion, a book in which he challenges religiosity and its infiltration into government and politics. In his view, children should be taught comparative religion in school without bias, enabling them to draw their own conclusions about religion based on evidence and critical assessment. He is an opponent of the teaching of intelligent design in schools, which he considers a compromise to give oxygen to creationism.
An outspoken atheist, Dawkins has also criticized pseudoscience and alternative medicines. In 2012, a group of ichthyologists from Sri Lanka honored him with a new genus name, Dawkinsia, in recognition of his achievements in evolutionary biology.
University of California, Berkeley
Li Ka Shing Chancellor Chair Professor for the Department of Chemistry & Department of Molecular and Cell Biology
Biochemistry, Molecular Biology
Jennifer Doudna is a Li Ka Shing Chancellor Chair Professor for the Department of Chemistry and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. In addition, she has been a professor at the University of California at San Francisco and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and senior investigator at the Gladstone Institutes. She earned a B.A. in biochemistry from Pomona College and a Ph.D. in biological chemistry and molecular pharmacology from Harvard Medical School.
She is best known for her work with CRISPR. She, along with her colleague Emmanuelle Charpentier, were the first to suggest that genes could be edited or reprogrammed, now considered one of the most impactful discoveries ever made in the field of biology.
For her work in gene editing, she has received numerous prestigious awards, including the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, the Gruber Prize in Genetics, the Kavli Prize in Nanoscience and in 2016, she was runner-up for the Time magazine Person of the Year, alongside her fellow CRISPR colleagues. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Medicine and the National Academy of Inventors. Most recently, she was awarded the LUI Che Woo Prize for Welfare Betterment.
3. Craig Venter
University of California, San Diego
J. Craig Venter Institute
Craig Venter is a biotechnologist and entrepreneur who is the founder or co/founder of Human Longevity, Inc., Synthetic Genomics, Celera Genomics, The Institute for Genomic and the J. Craig Venter Institute. He studied at the College of San Mateo in California before earning a B.S. in biochemistry and a Ph.D. in physiology and pharmacology from the University of California at San Diego.
After joining the National Institutes of Health, he began working with genomic sequencing methods. After founding his own research company, Celera Genomics, with which he shares credit for the first draft sequencing of the human genome.
Venter’s contributions to our understanding of human genetics cannot be overstated. He has been included on many notable lists, including Time magazine’s 100 list of the most influential people and among the 50 most influential figures per New Statesman magazine.
Venter has also created the first partially synthetic species, which is being considered for patent. In 2016, Syn 3.0 was created, a synthetic life with the fewest genes of any living organism.
In 2008, he was awarded the National Medal of Science and the Kistler Prize from the Foundation for the Future, and in 2011 he was awarded the Dickson Prize in Medicine.
Barcelona Supercomputing Center
Director, Spanish National Bioinformatics Institute
Alfonso Valencia is director of the Spanish National Bioinformatics Institute and the Life Sciences department at Barcelona Supercomputing Center. He is a professor for the Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies and former president of the International Society for Computational Biology. He earned his Ph.D. in molecular biology from the Autonomous University of Madrid before completing a postdoctoral fellowship at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory.
His scientific research has focused on biomedical systems, using computational biology and bioinformatics methods. Valencia’s research group has produced systems for protein networks, systems biology, text and data mining, protein structure prediction, and more…with useful applications in cancer genomics, disease comorbidity, and epigenetics. These areas together form a basis for personalized medicine with the use of AI and computer modeling.
Valencia has also provided substantial leadership in his field, with positions as vice president and president of the International Society for Computational Biology and as a founding member of the organization.
He has been active in international consortia for his field of study, including the International Cancer Genome Consortium, the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium, Genecode/ENCODE, and the International Human Epigenomics Consortium. Valencia is also a co-executive editor for the journal, Bioinformatics.
University of Gloucestershire
Professor of Science Communication
Adam Hart is a Professor of Science Communication in the School of Natural and Social Sciences at the University of Gloucestershire. He is also an author, broadcaster, and scientist for the BBC.. He earned a B.A. in zoology at University of Cambridge’s Churchill College and a Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield. He is a well known scientist specializing in entomology.
Among his projects have been large-scale public science projects such as “Spider in da House”, the “Big Wasp Survey” and the “Starling Murmuration”. These research projects, supported by the Royal Society of Biology, have been widely referenced and used as the basis for other research.
As an expert in zoology, he is a frequently sourced commentator, weighing in on everything from trophy hunting, tree diseases, ladybird invasions, banana disease and conservation issues. As such he is a fellow of both the Royal Entomological Society and the Royal Society of Biology.
Hart has devoted his career not only to the research of science, but the sharing of what he has learned. He has presented a number of documentaries such as Life on Planet Ant and on topics as diverse as de-extinction and swarm robotics.
His work has been recognized with awards such as the Student Union Outstanding Lecturer Award and the Green Gowns Award for Research with Impact. He continues to support ethical conservation through this patronage of Bees Abroad.
6.Steven J. Cooke
Professor and Canada Research Chair, Department of Environmental Science and Biology
Integrative Biology, Conservation Science
Steven J. Cooke is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Conservation Physiology and a full professor and Canada Research Chair in Environmental Science and Biology for Carleton University. He earned a bachelor of environmental studies and a master’s of biology from the University of Waterloo before earning his doctorate at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is best known for his work studying fish physiology, ecology, conservation physiology, fish behavior, and human dimensions of complex environmental problems.
Cooke has published over 800 peer-reviewed scientific papers regarding his research findings. He has researched reproduction in centrarchid fish, migration of sockeye salmon and Pacific salmon and conservation management techniques. He has been influential in policy making and consultation for recreational and commercial fisheries, with an eye towards protecting biodiversity and preventing overfishing. His work has provided helpful context for legislators seeking to promote ecological restoration projects and critical insights into the impacts of fishing on fish.
He has been recognized with numerous awards, including the Award of Excellence from the Fisheries Management Section of the American Fisheries Society, the FSBI Medal from the Fisheries Society of the British Isles and the Distinguished Service Award from the AFS. Most recently, he was named the Robin Welcomme Fellow in Inland Fisheries for Michigan State University.
7.James D. Watson
Zoologist, Geneticist, Biologist
Molecular Biology, Genetics
James D. Watson is a zoologist, geneticist and molecular biologist. He earned a Bachelor of Science from the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. from Indiana University. He is most recently well-known due to his controversial comments about race and genetics, for which he has been largely ostracized.
Prior to his unfortunate foray into racial genetics, he was highly regarded for his work on molecular biology. He is credited for significant contributions to our understanding of cancer, neurological diseases and the genetic basis for cancer and other diseases.
He worked closely with Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins on groundbreaking research on the structure of nucleic acid. Their work was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The discovery of the double helix is considered one of the more pivotal discoveries in science. He has also written a number of books, including a textbook, Molecular Biology of the Gene and The Double Helix.
His body of work has been undermined by his positions on homosexuality, obesity, intellect, and physical attractiveness - traits for which he promoted genetic manipulation. In his view, measures should be taken to selectively reproduce to increase intelligence or physical attractiveness, and to decrease “unfavorable” traits such as a propensity for obesity.
Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens, Humboldt University
Founding and Acting Director, Honorary Professor
Emmanuelle Charpentier is the Founding and Acting Director of the Max Planck Unit for the Science of Pathogens and an Honorary Professor at Humboldt University. She completed her undergraduate studies at the Pierre and Marie Curie University, which is now known as the Faculty of Science at Sorbonne University. She went on to earn a research doctorate from the Institut Pasteur.
Charpentier is well known for her collaboration with Jennifer Doudna on decoding the molecular mechanisms of the CRISPR/Cas9 bacterial immune system. Her work on CRISPR has enabled scientists to edit the genome using Cas9.
For her work on CRISPR, she has received the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award, the Gruber Foundation International Prize in Genetics, the Leibniz Prize, the Kavli Prize and the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, the Novozymes Prize, the Bijvoet Medal of the Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research at Utrecht University, and most recently, the Scheele Award of the Swedish Pharmaceutical Society.
Charpentier is an elected member of the National Academy of Technologies of France, the German National Academy of Science and Engineering Acatech, and the French Académie des sciences. She is an elected foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences.
9. Richard Lewontin
Professor of Biology Emeritus, Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Emeritus
Evolutionary Bioogy, Population Genetics
Richard Lewontin is a geneticist, evolutionary biologist, mathematician, and commentator. He earned a B.S. in biology from Harvard College, a master’s degree in mathematical statistics, and a Ph.D. in zoology from Columbia University. Lewontin is best known for his work in theoretical and experimental population genetics.
In 1960, he worked with Ken-Ichi Kojima to become the first population geneticist to identify the equations for change of haplotype frequencies with interacting national selection at two loci. He has become a vocal advocate for his theories on evolutionary biology, which has earned him both acclaim and criticism. At times, he has appeared to be hampered by his political beliefs, perhaps unwilling to consider possibilities that did not comport with his worldview.
He has challenged the notion of inheritability of intelligence and other traits, feeling instead that the lifeform is an active participant in evolution and the environment, rather than a passive participant. He has also theorized that genetically modified crops were not created just to be better, but to also force farmers into having to buy new seeds every year, rather than to use the seeds created by their last crop.
In 2017, Lewontin was recognized by the Genetics Society of America, which awarded him their Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal.
10. Edward O. Wilson
Professor Emeritus of Entomology
Myrmecology, Biodiversity, Sociobiology
Edward O. Wilson is the world’s leading expert on ants, a specialty known as myrmecology, but that’s not all. He is also considered the father of biodiversity and the father of sociobiology. He is the Pellegrino University Research Professor Emeritus of Entomology at the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University and a lecturer at Duke University. He earned his B.S. and M.S. in biology from the University of Alabama. He was named to the Harvard Society of Fellows, which enabled him to travel around the world studying ant species from Australia to Cuba. He graduated from Harvard University with his Ph.D.
His interest in entomology began at an early age. He suffered a loss of vision in his right eye, forcing him to look differently at the world. He began to focus on the tiniest creatures, as those were the ones he could see best. At 18, he was collecting flies to study, but a lack of insect pins caused by the war made him switch to ants.
His book, On Human Nature, won the Pulitzer Prize in 1979. In 1991, he won yet another Pulitzer Prize, for The Ants, which he wrote with Bert Hölldobler. He is the founder of the E.O. Wilson Biodiversity Foundation.
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência
Monica Bettencourt-Dias is the Director of Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência. A biochemist and cellular biologist, she is also the head of the Cell Cycle Regulation research group. She earned her undergraduate degree in biochemistry from the University of Lisbon, and graduated from University College London with a doctorate in biochemistry and molecular biology. She split her postdoctoral time between the University of Cambridge and Birkbeck College, where she researched kinases and scientific communication. She earned a Diploma in Science Communication from Birkbeck College in 2004, which arose from her work on improving how scientists communicate with the public.
Her laboratory work has focused on complex subcellular structure and how they change during disease, development, and evolution, using complex cytoskeletal assemblies for study. For her research efforts, Bettencourt-Dias has won numerous awards, including the Eppendorf Young European Investigator Award, the Pfizer Award for Basic Research, and the Keith Porter Prize from the American Society for Cell Biology.
She was named a European Molecular Biology Organization Young Investigator Fellow in 2009 and became a full member of that organization in 2015.
Bettencourt-Dias current research projects include studies of spatial control of centriole biogenesis, causes, and consequences of centriole deregulation in cancer, the evolution of microtubule-organizing centers, and mechanisms of cilia diversification.
Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford Professor of Biological Sciences
Marcus Feldman is co-director of the Center for Computational, Evolutionary, and Human Genomics and the Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford Professor of Biological Sciences, and director of the Morrison Institute for Population and Resource Studies at Stanford University. He earned degrees in mathematics and statistics from the University of Western Australia, a master of science in mathematics from Monash University, and a Ph.D. from Stanford University.
While collaborating with L.L. Cavalli-Sforza, he introduced a quantitative theory of cultural evolution, which led to further research into the cultural transmission and gene-culture coevolution.
His work in population genetics is highly regarded. He has published more than 600 scientific works based on his research. He is an associate editor of Genetics, Human Genetics, Annals of Human Genetics, Annals of Human Biology, and Complexity. The founding editor of Theoretical Population Biology, he is also a former editor of The American Naturalist.
He has received a Guggenheim Fellowship, China Population Association Award, the Dan David Prize, and Kimura Motoo Award in Human Evolution. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Society of Human Genetics, the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, US National Academy of Sciences, and the California Academy of Sciences.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McGovern Institute
James and Patricia Poitras Professor in Neuroscience
Feng Zhang is a core member of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, the James and Patricia Poitras Professor in Neuroscience for the McGovern Institute for Brain Research and for Brain and Cognitive Sciences and Biological Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After immigrating to the U.S. from China with his mother at the age of 11, he attended school in Iowa. He earned his B.A. in Chemistry and Physics from Harvard University and his Ph.D. in chemical and biological engineering from Stanford University.
Best known for his work in optogenetics, is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences. His lab uses synthetic biology to develop tools and methods for epigenomic and genomic engineering, for use in neurobiological study. They have developed a new protocol for nucleic acid detection, SHERLOCK, which is based on CRISPR. His work has yielded important innovations in the use of CRISPR technologies.
Zhang has received numerous prestigious awards, including the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award, the Alan T. Waterman Award, the Gairdner Foundation International Award, and the Tsuneko & Reiji Okazaki Award. In 2017, he was named to the Forbes 30 Under 30 list.
Technical University of Munich
Director, Department of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics
Computational Biology, Bioinformatics
Burkhard Rost is head of the Department of Computational Biology & Bioinformatics for the Technical University of Munich. He is also the chair of the Study Section Bioinformatics Munich with the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. He studied physics at the University of Giessen and physics, history, philosophy, and psychology at the University of Heidelberg, where he earned his Ph.D.
Rost has focused on the use of machine learning to predict enzymatic activity, subcellular localization, functional effects of points mutations/SNPs, disordered regions, internal residue-residue contacts, and protein clustering.
He is currently trying to solve the problem of how to predict the effects of individual mutations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms. His group, Predictprotein, launched in 1992 and still releases helpful computational and machine learning models for other scientists to use in their research efforts. He became the president of the International Society for Computational Biology in 2007, serving in that role until 2014. He has also provided conference leadership, co-chairing the annual meeting for the Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, as well as conferences for that organization, held in Chile, Brazil, Uruguay, China, Malaysia, Mali, Tunisia, and more. He became a Fellow of the ISCB in 2015, a position he still holds today.
Direct Genomics and Vienomics Biotech
Jiankui He is a biophysics researcher, former professor at Southern University of Science and Technology, and the creator of the first gene-edited babies. He earned a B.S. from the University of Science and Technology of China and a Ph.D. from Rice University. While at Rice University, he began working with CRISPR, and throughout his career, has used CRISPR on human embryos, mice and monkeys.
He is the founder of two biotechnology companies, Direct Genomics and Vienomics Biotech. His most notable accomplishment, a successful gene-editing experiment, resulted in the birth of the very first gene-edited babies. His supposed intent was to protect the offspring of an HIV positive father from contracting the disease.
The reception to their announcement quickly went from exultant to ominous. The scientific community writ large condemned his research methods and felt that he had breached ethical and moral codes of conduct.
Having implanted gene-edited embryos in two different mothers, three genetically engineered children were born. The potential implications for the procedure on the future health and wellbeing of the children is not yet known.
Chinese authorities declared his work abominable and he was detained by the government for some time. He was later sentenced to three years in prison and a substantial fine.
Johns Hopskins University
Professor and Scientific Director
Hamilton Smith is a microbiologist, assistant professor of microbiology at Johns Hopkins, and scientific director and synthetic biology and bioenergy distinguished professor of Synthetic Genomics. He earned a B.A. in mathematics from the University of California at Berkeley and a M.D. from Johns Hopkins University. He spent his early career working for the Washington University in St. Louis Medical Service before studying at the University of Zurich under a Guggenheim Fellowship.
He is co-credited with discovering Hindll, the first type II restriction enzyme and his work with DNA methylases and bacterial host restriction. He went on to earn, with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans, a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for their work on type II restriction enzymes.
His later work has focused on genomics. He contributed to the first sequencing of a bacterial genome, and was instrumental in the mapping of the human genome. While working with the J. Craig Venter Institute, he has worked on the creation of partially synthetic life.
Most recently, Smith has been focusing on better understanding the genetic requirements for minimal bacterial life, as well as the mechanism of DNA cassette insertional mutagenesis in yeast.
University of Pennsylvania
Stuart Kauffman is an emeritus professor of biochemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, an affiliate faculty member for the Institute of Systems Biology, a medical doctor, theoretical biologist, and researcher of complex systems. He earned his B.A. at Oxford University and an M.D. at the University of California at San Francisco.
Among his best-known work has been his exploration of the complexity of biological systems and the origins of the Earth. He built the N-K fitness landscapes model, which expanded upon the spin glass physics models. His N-K fitness landscapes have since been used by biologists and economists to understand systems behaviors.
He is a prolific writer, with over 350 articles to his credit, as well as 6 books, including At Home in the Universe: The Search for Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity, The Origins of Order: Self Organization and Selection in Evolution, and Humanity in a Creative Universe.
Kauffman is a former MacArthur Fellow, having held a fellowship from 1987-1992. He has won the Norbert Wiener Memorial Gold Medal for Cybernetics, the Gold Medal of the Accademia dei Lincei, the Trotter Prize for Information and Complexity, and the Herbert Simon Award for Complex Systems.
He was invited to become a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 2009.
Carnell Professor, Department of Biology
Masatoshi Nei is a Carnell Professor with the department of biology at Temple University. An evolutionary biologist, he studied at both Kyoto University and the University of Miyazaki.
He has been prolific in the development of the statistical theory of molecular evolution, developing new theories as new discoveries in molecular biology emerge. He has worked at institutions such as Brown University, National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Kyoto University, advancing his understanding of how mutations can drive evolution.
He is famous for mathematically demonstrating how natural selection enhances linkage intensity and his measure of genetic distance (Nei’s distance). He has written numerous books about his research, including Molecular Population Genetics and Evolution, Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, and Mutation-Driven Evolution. Nei holds the view that mutation is the driving force for evolution and that multi-gene families evolve through a model that looks like a birth-death process. With his group of researchers, he invented a method for identifying positive selection by statistical analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions.
He has been awarded the International Prize for Biology by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal and the Kyoto Prize in Basic Sciences. Nei has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1997.
University of Manchester
Professor of Physiology
Nancy Rothwell is the President and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Manchester, the director of AstraZeneca, a global pharmaceuticals company, and a physiologist. She is also a trustee of Cancer Research UK and chair of the Research Defence Society. She earned her first class degree in physiology and a Ph.D from Queen Elizabeth College.
Her early research efforts were focused on obesity, cachexia, and energy balance regulation. She is a vocal supporter of women in science and has provided visionary leadership in her roles as the president of the Royal Society of Biology. She was the first woman to lead the University of Manchester, a testament to her groundbreaking work and transformative leadership style.
Rothwell was named Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire and is a fellow of the Royal Society, the Royal Society of Biology and the Academy of Medical Sciences. She was named one of the most powerful women in the United Kingdom by Women’s Hour and received the Royal Society Pfizer Award.
Most recently, she has been researching the role of inflammation in brain disease. Her discovery of the impacts of cytokine interleukin-1 is giving rise to new treatment methods designed to inhibit the inflammatory response in strokes.
University of Chicago
Professor Emeritus, Department of Ecology and Evolution
Jerry Coyne is professor emeritus at the University of Chicago for the Department of Ecology and Evolution. He earned a B.S. in biology from the College of William & Mary. He was drafted while attending graduate school at Rockefeller University, but returned to his studies upon his return, earning a Ph.D. in biology from Harvard University. He went on to a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of California at Davis. He is an expert in speciation and ecological and evolutionary genetics.
He has been a vocal critic of religion, intelligent design, theistic evolution, and creationism, and has authored several books on the topic, including Faith vs. Fact: Why Science and Religion are Incompatible. As evidence for the truth of evolution, he cites the fossil record, embryology, molecular biology, the existence of vestigial organs (in humans as well as other creatures), biogeography, and DNA sequencing similarities. He also cites the existence of transitional fossils such as ambulocetus, which represents a transition between land mammals and whales, and the Tiktaalik, which represents a transition between fish and amphibians.
Although retired from teaching, Coyne does still write a popular blog on evolution, titled Why Evolution is True, that covers all topics evolution-related, including atheism, medical ethics, philosophy, and more.
California Institute of Technology
Robert Andrews Milliken Professor of Biology
David Baltimore is director of the Joint Center for Translational Medicine and President Emeritus and Robert Andrews Milliken Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology. He earned a bachelor’s degree from Swarthmore College and a Ph.D. in biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he also conducted his postdoctoral research on virus replication.
His research has produced remarkable contributions to cancer research, biotechnology, recombinant DNA research virology, and immunology. In 1975, he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Howard Temin and Renato Dulbecco, for their work on interactions between the genetic material contained in the cell and tumor viruses. Reverse transcriptase was found to be an enzyme that can cause cell transcription – or replication of their genomes.
After receiving the Nobel Prize, Baltimore moved into immunology and virology, which led to his work on Abelson murine leukemia virus, lymphocyte differentiation, and the use of tyrosine as a phosphoacceptor.
He is a co-founder of the Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research which has arisen to international prominence and is considered a crucial partner for the Human Genome Project. From 1997 to 2005, he served as president of the California Institute of Technology, during which time he also received the National Medal of Science from President Bill Clinton.
Curator, American Museum of Natural History
Niles Eldredge is a biologist and paleontologist. He studied Latin and geology as an undergraduate before earning a Ph.D. at Columbia University. His career and research have been devoted to the exploration of paleontology and evolutionary theory.
As curator of the American Museum of Natural History’s Department of Invertebrates, and later, Invertebrate Paleontology, he specialized in the study of the evolution of Phacopida trilobites, which went extinct roughly 245 million years ago.
A critic of the more common, gene-centered, view of evolution, he and collaborator Stephen Jay Gould have hypothesized that evolution occurs via multiple mechanisms, including environmental and ecological systems. Their theory, punctuated equilibrium, states that evolution occurs in shorter periods of accelerated change, separated by periods of stasis. His theoretical approach situates the evolutionary process within the historical and ecological context.
Eldredge is a prolific writer with more than 160 scientific works to his credit. His books include Reinventing Darwin: The Great Debate at the High Table of Evolutionary Theory, and Dominion, and more recently, Eternal Ephemera: Adaptation and the Origin of Species from the Nineteenth Century through Punctuated Equilibria and Beyond and Evolutionary Theory: A Hierarchical Perspective. In recent years, he has turned his attention to political activism, working to reject the rise of fascism.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Professor of Biology
Systems Biology, Genetics
Eric Lander is founding director of the Broad Institute at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Professor of Biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Professor of Systems Biology at Harvard Medical School. He graduated from Princeton University as valedictorian, with a B.S. in mathematics. He went on to attend Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, where he earned his Ph.D. He is a founder of Verastem and a founding advisor of Foundation Medicine.
He began his career in mathematics, but soon started looking at mathematical applications in neurobiology. In order to make the transition, he studied cellular neurobiology and later microbiology and genetics. He founded the Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research which quickly became one of the world’s leading genomic research centers.
He became a MacArthur Fellow in 1987, and a co-chair for the Council of Advisors on Science and Technology for the Obama Administration in 2008. He was honored with the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences in 2013 and with the William Allan Award of the American Society of Human Genetics in 2017. Among his most impactful contributions is his molecular taxonomy for cancer, which groups cancers based on their gene expression, and correlates that information to chemotherapy response.
University of Geneva
Werner Arber is a geneticist and microbiologist. He studied at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology and the University of Geneva. His doctorate was completed at the University of Geneva, where he studied electron microscopy and lambda bacteriophages.
Arber has worked with students, scientists and researchers at the University of Southern California, the University of Geneva, the University of California at Berkeley and the University of Basel.
He was among the first to work in the University of Basel’s new interdisciplinary research center, the Biozentrum. His work on restriction endonucleases (and arguably his experience working with Daisy Roulland-Dussoix, a Ph.D. student) led to a shared Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
He has provided exceptional scientific leadership, serving as a member of the World Knowledge Dialogue Scientific Board and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. In 2011, he became the first protestant to be appointed as President of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. He is co-founder of the World Cultural Council and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Arber has been generous with his time, sharing his expertise and knowledge with future scientists through the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings. Through these interactions, he is able to mentor young scientists and nurture a spirit of inquiry and deep curiosity.
Massachusetts Insitute of Technology
Computer Science and Artifical Intelligence Lab (CSAIL)
Tom Knight is a synthetic biologist and computer engineer for his company, Ginkgo Bioworks. He began his studies at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology at the tender age of 14, taking advantage of the school’s close proximity to his home.
With a background in computer programming and organic chemistry, he has made a number of important contributions to computer science. His work featured prominently in the creation of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. He wrote the original kernel for ITS operating system and designed one of the earliest semiconductor memory-based bitmap displays.
Some other important contributions to the field include the first silicon retina, the single-chip optical mouse and the Transit multiprocessor interconnection architecture. He co-founded Permabit and Exa Corporation, businesses that supply and develop B2B technology solutions.
With Jack Holloway, he designed and rolled out Chaosnet, the first LAN on MIT’s campus. Aside from his computer science work, Knight was keenly interested in synthetic biology. From his biology lab, he developed a library of BioBricks, leading to his informal coronation as the godfather of synthetic biology. These Biobricks form the foundation of the annual iGEM competition.
Honorable Mentions in Biology
- Elizabeth Blackburn, University of California, San Francisco
- George M. Church, Harvard University
- Philip J. Currie, University of Alberta
- H. Robert Horvitz, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Rudolf Jaenisch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Eric N. Olson, UT Southwestern
- Svante Paabo, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
- Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Cambridge Biomedical Campus
- Janet Rossant, University of Toronto
- Shinya Yamanaka, University of California, San Francisco
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